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Cooking Innovations

Using Hydrocolloids for Thickening, Gelling, and Emulsification

By Amos Nussinovitch, Madoka Hirashima

CRC Press – 2013 – 384 pages

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    978-1-43-987588-9
    October 9th 2013

Description

While hydrocolloids have been used for centuries, it took molecular gastronomy to bring them to the forefront of modern cuisine. They are among the most commonly used ingredients in the food industry, functioning as thickeners, gelling agents, texturizers, stabilizers, and emulsifiers. They also have applications in the areas of edible coatings and flavor release. Although there are many books describing hydrocolloids and their industrial uses, Cooking Innovations: Using Hydrocolloids for Thickening, Gelling, and Emulsification is the first scientific book devoted to the unique applications of hydrocolloids in the kitchen, covering both past uses and future innovations.

Each chapter addresses a particular hydrocolloid, protein hydrocolloid, or protein–polysaccharide complex. Starting with a brief description of the chemical and physical nature of the hydrocolloid, its manufacture, and its biological/toxicological properties, the emphasis is on practical information for both the professional chef and amateur cook. Each chapter includes recipes demonstrating the particular hydrocolloid’s unique abilities in cooking. Several formulations were chosen specifically for food technologists, who will be able to manipulate them for large-scale use or as a starting point for novel industrial formulations.

The book covers the most commonly used hydrocolloids, namely, agar–agar, alginates, carrageenan and furcellaran, cellulose derivatives, curdlan, egg proteins, galactomannans, gelatin, gellan gum, gum arabic, konjac mannan, pectin, starch, and xanthan gum. It also discusses combining multiple hydrocolloids to obtain novel characteristics. This volume serves to inspire cooking students and introduce food technologists to the many uses of hydrocolloids. It is written so that chefs, food engineers, food science students, and other professionals will be able to cull ideas from the recipes and gain an understanding of the capabilities of each hydrocolloid.

Contents

Hydrocolloids—Where, Why, and When?

Introduction

Terminology

Classification

Economics

Gum Constituents and Their Effects on Processing

Functions of Hydrocolloids in Food Applications

Regulatory Aspects

References and Further Reading

Agar–Agar

Historical Background

Collection and Processing of Seaweed for Agar

Types of Agar Products

Regulatory Status and Toxicity

Structure of Agar

Agar–Agar Properties

Commercial Food Applications

Recipes with Agar–Agar

Tips for the Amateur Cook and Professional Chef

References and Further Reading

Alginates

Historical Background

Sources

Structure

Alginate Sources and Manufacture

Commercial Characteristics

Mechanism of Alginate Gelation

Applications

Recipes with Alginates

Tips for the Amateur Cook and Professional Chef

References and Further Reading

Carrageenan and Furcellaran

Introduction and Historical Background

Structure

Sources and Production

Accessible Types of Gum

Regulatory Aspects

Molecular Weight and Consistency

Solutions and Gels

Reactivity with Proteins

Applications

Recipes with Carrageenan and Furcellaran

Tips for the Amateur Cook and Professional Chef

References and Further Reading

Cellulose Derivatives

Introduction

Manufacture

Properties of Methylcellulose (MC) and Methylhydroxypropylcellulose

(MHPC)

Hydroxypropylcellulose (HPC)

Microcrystalline Cellulose (MCC)

Carboxymethylcellulose (CMC)

Food Applications

Recipes with Cellulose Derivatives

Tips for the Amateur Cook and Professional Chef

References and Further Reading

Curdlan

Historical Background

Production

Chemical Structure

Regulatory Status and Toxicity

Functional Properties

Commercial Food Applications

Recipes with Curdlan

Tips for the Amateur Cook and Professional Chef

References and Further Reading

Egg Proteins

Historical Background

The Structure of the Egg

The Composition of the Egg

Essential Nutrients and Value of Eggs

Egg Yolk Emulsions

Egg White Foams

Gels

Recipes with Eggs

Tips for the Amateur Cook and Professional Chef

References and Further Reading

Galactomannans

Introduction

Locust Bean Gum: Sources, Manufacturing, and Legislation

Guar Gum: Sources, Processing, and Regulatory Status

Tara Gum

Fenugreek Gum

Galactomannan Structure

Gum Solution Properties

Gelation and Interactions of Galactomannans

Stability

Food Applications

Recipes with Galactomannans

Tips for the Amateur Cook and Professional Chef

References and Further Reading

Gelatin

Historical Background

Definitions

Manufacture and Sources

Physical Properties

Technical Data

Food Uses and Applications

Regulations

Recipes with Gelatin

Tips for the Amateur Cook and Professional Chef

References and Further Reading

Gellan Gum

Historical Background

Structure and Chemical Composition

Source, Production Supply, and Regulatory Status

Functional Properties

Mechanism of Gelation and Gellan-Gum Gel Properties

Comparison to Other Hydrocolloids

Food and Other Applications

Recipes with Gellan Gum

Tips for the Amateur Cook and Professional Chef

References and Further Reading

Gum Arabic

Introduction

Common Names, Economic Importance, and Distributional Range

Gum Arabic Production

Gum Arabic Properties

Gum Chemical Characteristics

Viscosity and Acid Stability

Applications of Gum Arabic

Recipes with Gum Arabic

Tips for the Amateur Cook and Professional Chef

References and Further Reading

Konjac Mannan

Historical Background

The Plant and the Tuber

Manufacture

Structure

Technical Data

Food Applications

Recipes with Konjac Mannan

Okara Konjac Recipes

Regulatory Status

Tips for the Amateur Cook and Professional Chef

References and Further Reading

Pectin

Introduction

Nomenclature

Structure

Sources and Properties

Pectin Manufacture

Commercial Availability, Specifications, and Regulatory Status

Solution Properties

Viscosity

Pectin Gel Types and Properties

Applications

Recipes with Pectin

Tips for the Amateur Cook and Professional Chef

References and Further Reading

Starch

Introduction

Varieties of Starch

Structure and Composition

Functional Properties of Starch Suspensions

Starch Pastes and Gels

Effect of Food Ingredients on Starch Functionality

Properties of Available Starches

Commercial Applications of Starches

Recipes with Starch

Tips for the Amateur Cook and Professional Chef

References and Further Reading

Xanthan Gum

Introduction

Processing

Chemical Structure

Xanthan Gum Solutions

Xanthan Gum Interactions

Food Applications

Toxicity

Recipes with Xanthan Gum

Tips for the Amateur Cook and Professional Chef

References and Further Reading

The Use of Multiple Hydrocolloids in Recipes

Synergistic Combinations

Protein–Polysaccharide Interactions: Conjugates and Complexes

Applications

Recipes with Multiple Hydrocolloids

Tips for the Amateur Cook and Professional Chef

References and Further Reading

Glossary

Alphabetical List of Hydrocolloid Manufacturers and Suppliers

Index

Author Bio

Professor Amos Nussinovitch was born in Kibbutz Megiddo, Israel. He studied chemistry at the University of Tel Aviv, and food engineering and biotechnology at the Technion – Israel Institute of Technology. He has worked as a food engineer at several companies and has been involved in a number of R&D projects in both the United States and Israel, focusing on the mechanical properties of liquids, semisolids, solids, and powders.

He is currently in the Biochemistry and Food Science Department of the Robert H. Smith Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Environment of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel, where he leads a large group of researchers working on theoretical and practical aspects of hydrocolloids. Prof. Nussinovitch is the sole author of five books, the author or coauthor of numerous papers on hydrocolloids and on the physical properties of foods, and an inventor on many related patent applications.

Madoka Hirashima, Ph.D., was born in Kyoto, Japan. She studied the rheological properties of curdlan and cornstarch at the Graduate School of Human Life Science, Osaka City University. Dr. Hirashima worked at a food company as a new food developer, and then as a lecturer at several colleges. She is currently in Home Economics Education at the Faculty of Education, Mie University, where she teaches cooking as well as cooking science. She continues to study the rheological properties of polysaccharides, with a focus on the textures of starch and konjac products.

Name: Cooking Innovations: Using Hydrocolloids for Thickening, Gelling, and Emulsification (Hardback)CRC Press 
Description: By Amos Nussinovitch, Madoka Hirashima. While hydrocolloids have been used for centuries, it took molecular gastronomy to bring them to the forefront of modern cuisine. They are among the most commonly used ingredients in the food industry, functioning as thickeners, gelling agents,...
Categories: Food Chemistry, Product Development