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Principles of Enhanced Heat Transfer

2nd Edition

By Ralph L. Webb

CRC Press – 2005 – 824 pages

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    978-1-59169-014-6
    June 23rd 2005

Description

This book is essential for anyone involved in the design of high-performance heat exchangers or heat devices, also known as "second generation heat transfer technology." Enhanced surfaces are geometrics with special shapes that promote much higher rates of heat transfer than smooth or plain surfaces. This revision presents the subject matter just beyond the introductory level and traces the advancement of heat transfer research in areas such as integral-fin and micro-fin tubes, complex plate-fin geometries, and micro-channels for single-phase and two-phase applications.

Contents

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION TO ENHANCED HEAT TRANSFER

1.1 INTRODUCTION

1.2 THE ENHANCEMENT TECHNIQUES

Passive Techniques

Active Techniques

1.2.3 Technique vs. Mode

1.3 PUBLISHED LITERATURE

General Remarks

U.S. Patent Literature

Manufacturer's Information

1.4 BENEFITS OF ENHANCEMENT

1.5 COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS OF ENHANCED SURFACES

Heat (and Mass) Exchanger Types of Interest

Illustrations of Enhanced Tubular Surfaces

Enhanced Fin Geometries for Gases

Plate Type Heat Exchangers

Cooling Tower Packings

Distillation and Column Packings

Factors Affecting Commercial Development

1.6 DEFINITION OF HEAT TRANSFER AREA

1.7 POTENTIAL FOR ENHANCEMENT

PEC Example 1.1

PEC Example 1.2

1.8 REFERENCES

CHAPTER 2: HEAT TRANSFER FUNDAMENTALS

2.l INTRODUCTION

2.2 HEAT EXCHANGER DESIGN THEORY

Thermal Analysis

Heat Exchanger Design Methods

Comparison of LMTD and NTU Design Methods

2.3 FIN EFFICIENCY

2.4 HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENTS AND FRICTION FACTORS

Laminar Flow Over Flat Plate

Laminar Flow in Ducts

Turbulent Flow in Ducts

Tube Banks (Single-Phase Flow)

Film Condensation

Nucleate Boiling

2.5 CORRECTION FOR VARIATION OF FLUID PROPERTIES

Effect of Changing Fluid Temperature

Effect Local Property Variation

2.6 REYNOLDS ANALOGY

2.7 FOULING OF HEAT TRANSFER SURFACES

2.8 CONCLUSIONS

2.9 REFERENCES

2.10 NOMENCLATURE

CHAPTER 3: PERFORMANCE EVALUATION CRITERIA FOR SINGLE-PHASE FLOWS

3.1 PERFORMANCE EVALUATION CRITERIA (PEC)

3.2 PEC FOR HEAT EXCHANGERS

3.3 PEC FOR SINGLE PHASE FLOW

Objective Function and Constraints

Algebraic Formulation of the PEC

Simple Surface Performance Comparison

Constant Flow Rate

Fixed Flow Area

3.4 THERMAL RESISTANCE ON BOTH SIDES

3.5 RELATIONS FOR St AND f

3.6 HEAT EXCHANGER EFFECTIVENESS

3.7 EFFECT OF REDUCED EXCHANGER FLOW RATE

3.8 FLOW NORMAL TO FINNED TUBE BANKS

3.9 VARIANTS OF THE PEC

3.10 COMMENTS ON OTHER PERFORMANCE INDICATORS

Shah

Soland et al.

3.11 CONCLUSIONS

3.12 REFERENCES

3.13 NOMENCLATURE

CHAPTER 4: PERFORMANCE EVALUATION CRITERIA FOR TWO-PHASE HEAT EXCHANGERS

4.1 INTRODUCTION

4.2 OPERATING CHARACTERISTICS OF TWO-PHASE HEAT EXCHANGERS

4.3 ENHANCEMENT IN TWO-PHASE HEAT EXCHANGE SYSTEMS

Work Consuming Systems

Work Producing Systems

Heat Actuated Systems

4.4 PEC FOR TWO-PHASE HEAT EXCHANGE SYSTEMS

4.5 PEC CALCULATION METHOD

PEC Example 4.1

PEC Example 4.2

4.6 CONCLUSIONS

4.7 REFERENCES

4.8 NOMENCLATURE

CHAPTER 5: PLATE-AND-FIN EXTENDED SURFACES

5.1 INTRODUCTION

5.2 OFFSET-STRIP FIN

5.2.1 Enhancement Principle

5.2.2 PEC Example 5.1

5.2.3 Analytically Based Models for j and f vs. Re

5.2.4 Transition from Laminar to Turbulent Region

5.2.5 Correlations for j and f vs. Re

5.2.6 Use of OSF with Liquids

5.2.7 Effect of Percent Fin Offset

5.2.7 Effect of Burred Edges

5.3 LOUVER FIN

5.3.1 Heat Transfer and Friction Correlations

5.3.2 Flow Structure in the Louver Fin Array

5.3.3 Analytical Model for Heat Transfer and Friction

5.3.4 PEC Example 5.2

5.4 CONVEX LOUVER FIN

5. 5 WAVY FIN

5.6 3-DIMENSIONAL CORRUGATED FINS

5.7 PERFORATED FIN

5.8 PIN FINS AND WIRE MESH

5.9 VORTEX GENERATORS

5.9.1 Types of Vortex Generators

5.9.2 Vortex Generators on a Plate-Fin Surface

5.10 METAL FOAM FIN

5.11 PLAIN FIN

PEC Example 5.3

5.12 ENTRANCE LENGTH EFFECTS

5.13 PACKINGS FOR GAS-GAS REGENERATORS

5. 14 NUMERICAL SIMULATION

5.14.1 Offset-strip fins

5.14.2 Louver Fins

5. 14.3 Wavy Channels

5.14.4 Chevron Plates

5.14.5 Summary

5.15 CONCLUSIONS

5.16 REFERENCES

5.13 NOMENCLATURE

CHAPTER 6: EXTENDED SURFACES OUTSIDE TUBES

6.1 INTRODUCTION

6.2 THE GEOMETRIC PARAMETERS AND THE REYNOLDS NUMBER

Dimensionless Variables

Definition of Reynolds Number

Definition of the Friction Factor

Sources of Data

6.3 PLAIN PLATE-FINS ON ROUND TUBES

Effect of Fin Spacing

Correlations for Staggered Tube Geometries

Correlations for Inline Tube Geometries

6.4 PLAIN INDIVIDUALLY FINNED TUBES

Circular Fins with Staggered Tubes

Low Integral-Fin Tubes

6.5 ENHANCED PLATE FIN GEOMETRIES WITH ROUND TUBES

Wavy Fin

Offset Strip Fins

Convex Louver Fins

Louvered Fin

Perforated Fins

Mesh Fins

Vortex Generators

6.6 ENHANCED CIRCULAR FIN GEOMETRIES

Illustrations of Enhanced Fin Geometries

Spine or Segmented Fins

Wire Loop Fins

6.7 OVAL AND FLAT TUBE GEOMETRIES

Oval vs. Circular Individually Finned Tubes

Flat Extruded Aluminum Tubes with Internal Membranes

Plate-and-Fin Automotive Radiators

Vortex Generators on Flat or Oval Fin-Tube Geometry

6.8 ROW EFFECTS - STAGGERED AND INLINE LAYOUTS

6.9 HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT DISTRIBUTION (PLAIN FINS)

Experimental Methods

Plate Fin and Tube Measurements

Circular Fin and Tube Measurements

6.10 PERFORMANCE COMPARISON OF DIFFERENT GEOMETRIES

Geometries Compared

Analysis Method

Calculated Results

6. 11 PROGRESS ON NUMERICAL SIMULATION

6.12 RECENT PATENTS ON ADVANCED FIN GEOMETRIES

6.13 HYDROPHILIC COATINGS

6.14 CONCLUSIONS

6.15 REFERENCES

6.16 NOMENCLATURE

CHAPTER 7: INSERT DEVICES FOR SINGLE PHASE FLOW

7.1 INTRODUCTION

7.2 TWISTED TAPE INSERT

Laminar Flow

Predictive Methods for Laminar Flow

Turbulent Flow

PEC Example 7.1

Twisted Tapes in Annuli

Twisted Tapes in Rough Tubes

7.3 SEGMENTED TWISTED TAPE INSERT

7.4 DISPLACED ENHANCEMENT DEVICES

Turbulent Flow

Laminar Flow

PEC Example 7.2

7.5 WIRE COIL INSERTS

Laminar Flow

Turbulent Flow

7.6 EXTENDED SURFACE INSERT

7.7 TANGENTIAL INJECTION DEVICES

7.8 CONCLUSIONS

7.9 REFERENCES

7.10 NOMENCLATURE

CHAPTER 8: INTERNALLY FINNED TUBES AND ANNULI

8.1 INTRODUCTION

8.2 INTERNALLY FINNED TUBES

Laminar Flow

Turbulent Flow

PEC Example 1

8.3 SPIRALLY FLUTED TUBES

The General Atomics Spirally Fluted Tube

Spirally Indented Tube

8.4 ADVANCED INTERNAL FIN GEOMETRIES

8.5 FINNED ANNULI

8.6 CONCLUSIONS

8.7 REFERENCES

8.8 NOMENCLATURE

CHAPTER 9 INTEGRAL ROUGHNESS

9.1 INTRODUCTION

9.2 ROUGHNESS WITH LAMINAR FLOW

9.3 HEAT-MOMENTUM TRANSFER ANALOGY CORRELATION

Friction Similarity Law

PEC Example 9.1

Heat Transfer Similarity Law

Smooth Surfaces

Rough Surfaces

9.4 TWO-DIMENSIONAL ROUGHNESS

Transverse Rib Roughness

Integral Helical-Rib Roughness

Wire Coil Inserts

Corrugated Tube Roughness

PEC Example 9.2

9.5 THREE-DIMENSIONAL ROUGHNESS

9.6 PRACTICAL ROUGHNESS APPLICATIONS

Tubes with Inside Roughness

Rod Bundles and Annuli

Rectangular Channels

Outside Roughness for Cross Flow

9.7 GENERAL PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS

St and f vs. Reynolds Number

Other Correlating Methods

Prandtl Number Dependence

9.8 HEAT TRANSFER DESIGN METHODS

Design Method 1

Design Method 2

9.9 PREFERRED ROUGHNESS TYPE AND SIZE

Roughness Type

PEC Example 9.3

9.10 NUMERICAL SIMULATION

Predictions for Transverse-Rib Roughness

Effect of Rib Shape

The Discrete-Element Predictive Model

9.11 CONCLUSIONS

9.12 REFERENCES

9.12 NOMENCLATURE

CHAPTER 10: FOULING ON ENHANCED SURFACES

10.1 INTRODUCTION

10.2 FOULING FUNDAMENTALS

Particulate Fouling

10.3 FOULING OF GASES ON FINNED SURFACES

10.4 SHELL SIDE FOULING OF LIQUIDS

Low Radial Fins

Axial Fins and Ribs in Annulus

Ribs in Rod Bundle

10.5 FOULING OF LIQUIDS IN INTERNALLY FINNED TUBES

10.6 LIQUID FOULING IN ROUGH TUBES

Accelerated Fouling

Long Term Fouling

10.7 LIQUID FOULING IN PLATE-FIN GEOMETRY

10.8 CORRELATIONS FOR FOULING IN ROUGH TUBES

10.9 MODELING OF FOULING IN ENHANCED TUBES

10.10 FOULING IN PLATE HEAT EXCHANGERS

10.11 CONCLUSIONS

10.12 REFERENCES

10.13 NOMENCLATURE

CHAPTER 11 POOL BOILING

11.1 INTRODUCTION

11.2 EARLY WORK ON ENHANCEMENT (1931-1962)

11.3 SUPPORTING FUNDAMENTAL STUDIES

11.4 TECHNIQUES EMPLOYED FOR ENHANCEMENT

Abrasive Treatment

Open Grooves

Three-Dimensional Cavities

Etched Surfaces

Electroplating

Pierced Three-dimensional Cover Sheets

Attached Wire and Screen Promoters

Nonwetting Coatings

Oxide and Ceramic Coatings

Porous Surfaces

Structured Surfaces (Integral Roughness)

Combination Structured and Porous Surfaces

Composite Surfaces

11.5 SINGLE-TUBE POOL BOILING TESTS OF ENHANCED SURFACES

11.6 THEORETICAL FUNDAMENTALS

Liquid Superheat

Effect of Cavity Shape and Contact Angle on Superheat

Entrapment of Vapor in Cavities

Effect of Dissolved Gases

Nucleation at a Surface Cavity

Bubble Departure Diameter

Bubble Dynamics

11.7 BOILING HYSTERESIS AND ORIENTATION EFFECTS

Hysteresis Effects

Size and Orientation Effects

11.8 BOILING MECHANISM ON ENHANCED SURFACES

Basic Principles Employed

Visualization of Boiling in Subsurface Tunnels

Boiling Mechanism in Subsurface Tunnels

Chien and Webb Parametric Boiling Studies

11.9 PREDICTIVE METHODS FOR STRUCTURED SURFACES

Empirical Correlations

Nakayama et al. [1980b]

Chien and Webb Model

Ramaswamy et al. Model [2003]

Jiang et al. Model [2001]

Other Models

Evaluation of Models

11.10 BOILING MECHANISM ON POROUS SURFACES

O'Neill et al. Thin Film Concept

Kovalev et al. [1990] Concept

11.11 PREDICTIVE METHODS FOR POROUS SURFACES

O'Neill et al. [1972] Model

Kovalov et al. [1990] Model

Nishikawa et al. [1983] Correlation

Zhang and Zhang [1992] Correlation

11.12 CRITICAL HEAT FLUX

11.13 ENHANCEMENT OF THIN FILM EVAPORATION

11.14 CONCLUSIONS

11.15 REFERENCES

11.16 NOMENCLATURE

CHAPTER 12: VAPOR SPACE CONDENSATION

12.1 INTRODUCTION

Condensation Fundamentals

Basic Approaches to Enhanced Film Condensation

12.2 DROPWISE CONDENSATION

12.3 SURVEY OF ENHANCEMENT METHODS

Coated Surfaces

Roughness

Horizontal Integral-Fin Tubes

Corrugated Tubes

Surface Tension Drainage

Vertical Fluted Tubes

Electric Fields

12.4 SURFACE TENSION DRAINED CONDENSATION

Fundamentals

Adamek's Generalized Analysis

Practical Fin Profiles

Prediction for Trapezoidal Fin Shapes

12.5 HORIZONTAL INTEGRAL-FIN TUBE

The Beatty and Katz Model

Precise Surface Tension Drained Models

Approximate Surface Tension Drained Models

Comparison of Theory and Experiment

12.6 HORIZONTAL TUBE BANKS

Condensate Inundation without Vapor Shear

Condensate Drainage Pattern

Prediction of the Condensation Coefficient

12.7 CONCLUSIONS

12.8 REFERENCES

12.9 NOMENCLATURE

APPENDIX A: THE KEDZIERSKI AND WEBB [1990] FIN PROFILE SHAPES

APPENDIX B: FIN EFFICIENCY IN THE FLOODED REGION

CHAPTER 13 CONVECTIVE VAPORIZATION

13.1 INTRODUCTION

13.2 FUNDAMENTALS

Flow Patterns

Convective Vaporization in Tubes

Two-Phase Pressure Drop

Effect of Flow Orientation on Flow Pattern

Convective Vaporization in Tube Bundles

Critical Heat Flux

13.3 ENHANCEMENT TECHNIQUES IN TUBES

Internal Fins

Swirl Flow Devices

Roughness

Coated Surfaces

Perforated Foil Inserts

Porous Media

Coiled Tubes and Return Bends

13.4 THE MICROFIN TUBE

Early Work on the Microfin Tube

Recent Work on the Microfin Tube

Special Microfin Geometries

Microfin Vaporization Data

13.5 MINI-CHANNELS

13.6 CRITICAL HEAT FLUX (CHF)

Twisted Tape

Grooved Tubes

Mesh Inserts

13.7 PREDICTIVE METHODS FOR IN-TUBE FLOW

High Internal Fins

Microfins

Twisted Tape Inserts

Corrugated Tubes

Porous Coatings

13.8 TUBE BUNDLES

Convective Effects in Tube Bundles

Starting Hysteresis in Tube Bundles

13.9 PLATE-FIN HEAT EXCHANGERS

13.10 THIN FILM EVAPORATION

Horizontal Tubes

Vertical Tubes

13.11 CONCLUSIONS

13.12 REFERENCES

CHAPTER 14: CONVECTIVE CONDENSATION

14.1 INTRODUCTION

14.2 FORCED CONDENSATION INSIDE TUBES

Internally Finned Tubes

Twisted-tape Inserts.

Roughness

Coiled Tubes and Return Bends

14.3 MICROFIN TUBE

Microfin Geometry Details

Optimization of Internal Geometry

Condensation Mechanism in Microfin Tubes

Convective Condensation in Special Microfin Geometries

14.4 FLAT TUBE AUTOMOTIVE CONDENSERS

Condensation Data for Flat, Extruded Tubes

Other Predictive Methods of Condensation in Flat Tubes

14.5 PLATE-TYPE HEAT EXCHANGERS

14.6 NON-CONDENSIBLE GASES

14.7 PREDICTIVE METHODS FOR CIRCULAR TUBES

High Internal Fins

Wire Loop Internal Fins

Twisted-tapes

Roughness

Microfins

14.8 CONCLUSIONS

14.8 REFERENCES

14.9 NOMENCLATURE

CHAPTER 15 ENHANCEMENT USING ELECTRIC FIELDS

15.1 INTRODUCTION

15.2 ELECTRODE DESIGN AND PLACEMENT

15.3 SINGLE-PHASE FLUIDS

15.3.1 Enhancement on Gas Flow

15.3.2 Enhancement on Liquid Flow

15.3.3 Numerical Studies

15.4 CONDENSATION

15.4.1 Fundamental Understanding

15.4.2 Vapor Space Condensation

15.4.3 In-tube Condensation

15.4.4 Falling Film Evaporation

15.4.5 Correlations

15.5 BOILING

15.5.1 Fundamental Understanding

15.5.2 Pool Boiling

15.5.3 Convective Vaporization

15.5.4 Critical Heat Flux

15.5.5 Correlations

15.6 CONCLUSIONS

15.7 REFERENCES

15.8 NOMENCLATURE

CHAPTER 16: SIMULTANEOUS HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER

16.1 INTRODUCTION

16.2 MASS TRANSFER RESISTANCE IN THE GAS PHASE

Condensation with Noncondensible Gases

Evaporation into Air

Dehumidifying Finned-Tube Heat Exchangers

Water Film Enhancement of Finned Tube Exchanger

16.3 CONTROLLING RESISTANCE IN LIQUID PHASE

16.4 SIGNIFICANT RESISTANCE IN BOTH PHASES

16.5 CONCLUSIONS

16.6 REFERENCES

16.7 NOMENCLATURE

CHAPTER 17 ADDITIVES FOR GASES AND LIQUIDS

17.1 INTRODUCTION

17.2 ADDITIVES FOR SINGLE-PHASE LIQUIDS

Solid Particles

PEC Example

Gas Bubbles

Suspensions in Dilute Polymer and Surfactant Solutions

17.3 ADDITIVES FOR SINGLE-PHASE GASES

Solid Additives

Liquid Additives

17.4 ADDITIVES FOR BOILING

17.5 ADDITIVES FOR CONDENSATION

17.6 CONCLUSIONS

17.7 REFERENCES

17.8 NOMENCLATURE

CHAPTER 18 MICRO-CHANNELS

18.1 INTRODUCTION

18.2 FRICTION IN SINGLE MICRO-CHANNELS

18.3 FRICTION IN A SINGLE CHANNEL VS. MULTI-CHANNELS

18.4 SINGLE-PHASE HEAT TRANSFER IN MICRO-CHANNELS

18.4.1 Single Channel Flow

18.4.2 Heat Transfer in Multiple Micro-channels

18.5 MANIFOLD SELECTION AND DESIGN

18.5.1 Single-Phase Flow

18.5.2 Two-Phase Flow

18.6 NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF FLOW IN MANIFOLDS

18.7 TWO-PHASE HEAT TRANSFER IN MICRO-CHANNELS

18.8 CONCLUSIONS

18.9 REFERENCES

18.10 NOMENCLATURE

CHAPTER 19 ELECTRONIC COOLING HEAT TRANSFER

19.1 INTRODUCTION

19.2 COMPONENT THERMAL RESISTANCES

19.3 LIMITS ON DIRECT HEAT REMOVAL WITH AIR-COOLING (DirHR)

19.3.1 PEC Example 19.1 Enhanced Fin Geometry Heat Sink

Table 19.1 Performance Of Plain Fin And Offset Strip Fin Heat Sinks.

19.4 2nd GENERATION IndHR DEVICES FOR HEAT REMOVAL AT HOT SOURCE

19.4.1 Single-Phase Fluids

19.4.2 Two-Phase Fluids

19.4.3 Heat Pipe

19.4.4 Nucleate Boiling

19.4.5 Forced Convection

19.4.6 Spray Cooling

19.5 DISCUSSION OF ADVANCED HEAT REMOVAL CONCEPTS

19.5.1 Jet Impingement/Spray Cooling Devices

19.5.2 Single-Phase Micro-Channel Cooling

19.5.3 Two-Phase Micro-Channel Cooling

19.5.4 Enhanced Two-Phase Forced Convection Cooling

19.6 REMOTE HEAT-EXCHANGERS FOR IndHR

19.6.1 Air-Cooled Ambient Heat-Exchangers

19.6.2 Condensing Surfaces

19.6.3 Design for Multiple Heat Sources

19.7 SYSTEM PERFORMANCE FOR THE IndHR SYSTEM

19.8 CONCLUSIONS

19.9 REFERENCES

19.10 NOMENCLATURE

PROBLEM SUPPLEMENT

INDEX

Author Bio

Ralph L. Webb is a Professor Emeritus of Mechanical Engineering at the Pennsylvania State University. He received his Ph.D. from the University of Minnesota, and has published over 275 papers in the general area of heat transfer enhancement and has eight U.S. patents on enhanced heat transfer surfaces. He has performed research on enhanced heat transfer in boiling, condensation, fouling, air-cooled heat exchangers, electronic equipment cooling, forced convection for gases and liquids, wetting coatings to promote drainage of thin liquid films, and frost formation.

Prof. Webb is the Founding Editor and Editor-in-Chief of the Journal of Enhanced Heat Transfer and is an editor of Heat Transfer Engineering journal. He is a recipient of the ASME Heat Transfer Memorial Award, the UK Refrigeration Institute Hall-Thermotank Gold Medal, and the AIChE Donald Q. Kern award. He is also a Fellow of ASME and ASHRAE and a Life Member of ASME.

Nae-Hyun Kim is a Professor of Mechanical Engineering at the University of Incheon, Korea. He earned his Ph.D. at the Pennsylvania State University in 1989 under the supervision of Prof. Webb. Since then, he has been closely working with air-conditioning and refrigeration industries, where enhanced heat transfer technology has been successfully employed. Prof. Kim has published more than 30 international journal and conference papers related to boiling, condensation, fouling, and forced convection of liquids and gases. He is a member of ASME and ASHRAE.

Related Subjects

  1. Thermodynamics

Name: Principles of Enhanced Heat Transfer: 2nd Edition (Hardback)CRC Press 
Description: By Ralph L. Webb. This book is essential for anyone involved in the design of high-performance heat exchangers or heat devices, also known as "second generation heat transfer technology." Enhanced surfaces are geometrics with special shapes that promote much...
Categories: Thermodynamics