130 Years of Catching Up with the West
A Comparative Perspective on Hungarian Science and Technology Policy-making Since Industrialization
This title was first published in 2000: Issues such as globalization and the fight against joblessness as well as the growth dynamics of economies in general have been linked with science and technology. Accordingly, the growing public interest in the effects of science and technology on society and politics and vice versa have been the foremost reason for the creation of this study. One of the central questions for politicians as well as for scholars in the field of science and technology is, "How can I influence a given science and technology system in a way so as to achieve optimal outcomes for a given national economy?". The study at hand tries to answer this question by analyzing the Hungarian research sphere from industrialization until the late-20th century. Since the beginning of industrialization, Hungary has made a number of attempts to catch up with the economically more developed Western European countries. The problems encountered in the course of the Hungarian efforts are surprisingly similar to the difficulties that modern, fully industrialized economies are facing today.
Table of Contents
1. Introduction 2. Theoretical Background 3. The Foundations: Establishing a National Science and Technology System 4. The First Transition: The Implementation of the Soviet S&T System 5. The Second Transition: The New Economic Mechanism 6. The Third Transition: The Return to Capitalism 7. Presence and Future: Hungary and the other CEECs 8. Learning From the Past for the Future