14 MeV Neutrons: Physics and Applications, 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

14 MeV Neutrons

Physics and Applications, 1st Edition

By Vladivoj Valkovic

CRC Press

516 pages | 254 B/W Illus.

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Description

Despite the often difficult and time-consuming effort of performing experiments with fast (14 MeV) neutrons, these neutrons can offer special insight into nucleus and other materials because of the absence of charge. 14 MeV Neutrons: Physics and Applications explores fast neutrons in basic science and applications to problems in medicine, the environment, and security.

Drawing on his more than 50 years of experience working with 14 MeV neutrons, the author focuses on:

  • Sources of 14 MeV neutrons, including laboratory size accelerators, small and sealed tube generators, well logging sealed tube accelerators, neutron generators with detection of associated alpha particles, plasma devices, high flux sources, and laser-generated neutron sources
  • Nuclear reactions with 14 MeV neutrons, including measurements of energy spectra, angular distributions, and deductions of reaction mechanism
  • Nuclear reactions with three particles in the final state induced by neutrons and the identification of effects of final state interaction, quasi-free scattering, and charge-dependence of nuclear forces
  • Charged particle and neutron detection methods, particularly position-sensitive detectors
  • Industrial applications of nuclear analytical methods, especially in the metallurgy and coal industries
  • Quality assurance and quality control measures for nuclear analytical methods
  • Nuclear and atomic physics-based technology for combating illicit trafficking and terrorism
  • Medical applications, including radiography, radiotherapy, in vivo neutron activation analysis, boron neutron therapy, collimated neutron beams, and dosimetry

This book reflects the exciting developments in both fundamental nuclear physics and the application of fast neutrons to many practical problems. The book shows how 14 MeV neutrons are used in materials detection and analysis to effectively inspect large volumes in complex environments.

Table of Contents

Introduction

History: From Discovery to Present

MeV Neutrons and Nuclear Weapons

Nuclear Physics Probe

Modern Applications

References

Nuclear Reaction d + t → α + n

Properties of 3H(d,n)4He Nuclear Reaction

D-T Fusion Reaction: Power Production

Associated Alpha Particle-Tagged Neutron Beams

References

Sources of 14 MeV Neutrons

Introduction

Laboratory Size Accelerators

Small and Sealed-Tube Neutron Generators

Well Logging Sealed-Tube Accelerators

Neutron Generators with the Detection of Associated Alpha Particles

Plasma Devices

High Flux Sources

Laser-Generated Nanosecond Pulsed Neutron Sources

Calibrations of 14 MeV Neutron Generators

New Developments

Safety and Regulations

References

Detectors

Charged Particle Detection

Scintillation Detectors

Neutron Detection, Neutron-Gamma Separation

Personal X-Ray, Gamma, and Neutron Detectors

References

Nuclear Reactions Induced by 14 MeV Neutrons

Introduction

Experimental Setup, Coincidence Measurements

Nuclear Reactions on Light Nuclei

Direct Reactions, Compound Nucleus Formation

Activation Analysis: (n,p), (n,np), (n,α), (n,nα), (n,n'y), (n,2n), (n,t), (n,3He) Reactions

Fission Induced by 14 MeV Neutrons

Neutron-Induced SEU

References

Fast Neutron Activation Analysis: An Analytical Method

FNAA: Fundamentals and Applications

QA/QC Measures, Reference Materials

Process Control of Industrial Production Processes

Threat Material Detection with PFNA

Safety Issues

Fusion with Other Methods

References

Applications of Tagged Neutron Beams

Use of Tagged Neutron Beams

Homeland Security Applications

Detection of Threat Materials (Explosives, Drugs, and Dangerous Chemicals)

Use of Tagged Neutron Beam for Sea Container Inspection, Transport Infrastructure Control

Neutron Generators in Extreme Conditions

More Objects to Be Inspected and Inspection Requirements

References

Nuclear Reactions Logging

Nuclear Well Logging

Logging with Pulsed Neutron Beam

Carbon-Oxygen Log

Small-Scale Variations in C/O Ratios

References

Medical Applications of 14 MeV Neutrons

Introduction

Biological and Medical Applications

In Vivo Neutron Activation Analysis

Neutron Radiography

Fast Neutron Radiotherapy

Collimated Neutron Beams

Quality Assurance Programs for Diagnostic Facilities

Production of Radioisotopes Using Fast Neutrons

Dosimetry

References

About the Author

Vladivoj Valkovic is a retired professor of physics, a fellow of the American Physical Society and Institute of Physics, and the founder and director of the Croatian-based company Analysis & Control Technologies Ltd. (A.C.T.d.o.o.), which implements environmental security projects. Dr. Valkovic has authored 13 books and more than 380 scientific and technical papers in many journals. His research interests include nuclear physics and the application of instrumentation and techniques to problems in biology, medicine, environmental research, and trace element analysis. He recently developed the idea of autonomous ship container inspection.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
SCI051000
SCIENCE / Nuclear Physics
TEC019000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Lasers & Photonics
TEC059000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Biomedical