1st Edition

77 Pillars of Quality and the Pursuit of Excellence A Guide to Basic Concepts and Lean Six Sigma Tools for Practitioners, Managers, and Entrepreneurs

By Souraj Salah Copyright 2024
    344 Pages 29 B/W Illustrations
    by Productivity Press

    344 Pages 29 B/W Illustrations
    by Productivity Press

    344 Pages 29 B/W Illustrations
    by Productivity Press

    This book offers a basic and practical guide for a manager, quality practitioner, or anyone interested in learning and understanding the fundamental principles, concepts, tools, and techniques of quality management and process improvement. This book enables managers to have a strong foundation for effective management and improvement of operations. It strengthens quality practitioners’ approach to people, products, or services and process improvement, to influence without authority. It provides practitioners with a comprehensive understanding of the contemporary concepts of quality, guiding principles, and quality tools and techniques and on successfully implementing them. It helps enhance how practitioners perform their work and inspires them to strive for excellence.

    The book begins with an introduction and an overview of quality, followed by listing and explaining the selected 77 pillars (basic principles, concepts, and tools) of quality, grouped under the themes of quality, Six Sigma, and Lean Management. It examines the logical understanding of these pillars and how to implement them, providing practical examples and beneficial real case studies. The stories are based on the learning and practical experience of the author—a certified Lean Six Sigma Master Black Belt, a quality manager, and a university lecturer.

    This book benefits employees, partners, and customers of any organization, offering a great reference for practitioners and academics alike. It serves as a call to reflect on basic quality pillars first, before embarking on a quality improvement journey. It provides a solid foundation for managers and practitioners to exceed their customers’ expectations and excel in managing their business operations.

    Contents

    Foreword

    Preface

    Acknowledgments

    About the Author

    Abbreviations

    List of Figures

    List of Tables

     Abstract

    Part I              Introduction and Literature Review.........................................

    1          Introduction and Overview..............................................................

    1.1 Introduction and Motivation............................................................

    1.2 Objectives and Contribution.............................................................

    1.3 Book Organization...........................................................................

    2          Literature Review............................................................................

    2.1 A Brief History of Quality Control (QC) and Quality Improvement (QI).

    2.2 The Leading Contributors to Quality..................................................

    2.3 Quality Dimensions and Perspectives................................................

    2.4 Statistical Methods for Quality Improvement....................................

    2.5 Quality Management (QM)...............................................................

    2.6 Total Quality Management (TQM)....................................................

    2.7 Quality in the Service Industry..........................................................

    2.8 Quality Engineering (QE)..................................................................

    2.9 Six Sigma.........................................................................................

    2.9.1 Six Sigma Principles...................................................................

    2.9.2 Six Sigma Phases........................................................................

    2.9.2.1 Define Phase.......................................................................

    2.9.2.2 Measure Phase...................................................................

    2.9.2.3 Analyze Phase.....................................................................

    2.9.2.4 Improve Phase....................................................................

    2.9.2.5 Control Phase.....................................................................

    2.9.3 Design for Six Sigma (DFSS)........................................................

    2.10 Lean Management.........................................................................

    2.10.1 Where Did Lean Start?.............................................................

    2.10.2 How Does Lean Work?.............................................................

    2.10.3 Types of Waste........................................................................

    2.10.4 Five Lean Principles..................................................................

    2.10.5 Value Stream Mapping (VSM)...................................................

    2.10.6 Kaizen Events..........................................................................

    2.10.7 Lean Tools...............................................................................

    2.10.8 Lean Measures........................................................................

    2.11 Management Systems (MSs)...........................................................

    2.12 Quality Management Systems (QMSs).............................................

    2.13 Company-Wide Quality Control (CWQC)..........................................

    2.14 Integrated Company-Wide Management System (ICWMS)...............

    2.15 Cost of Quality (COQ).....................................................................

    2.16 Quality Loss Function (QLF)............................................................

    2.17 Supply Chain Management (SCM)...................................................

    2.18 LSS and SCM..................................................................................

    2.19 Requirements for Successful Continuous Improvement (CI)..............

    Part II     Quality Management...................................................................

    3          Fundamental Pillars Related to Quality.............................................

    3.1 Quality Pillar # 1:.............................................................................

    If you cannot measure, you cannot improve...........................................

    3.2 Quality Pillar #2:..............................................................................

    Manage your operation by focusing on its efficiency and effectiveness....

    3.3 Quality Pillar # 3:.............................................................................

    Quality is about pride in what you do and a passion for goodness............

    3.4 Quality Pillar # 4:.............................................................................

    Quality does pay for itself and thus costs nothing....................................

    3.5 Quality Pillar #5:..............................................................................

    Do it right the first time and every time..................................................

    3.6 Quality Pillar # 6:.............................................................................

    Quality loss is a cost to the whole society...............................................

    3.7 Quality Pillar # 7:.............................................................................

    Build quality into the process design itself starting from the early stages.

    3.8 Quality Pillar # 8:.............................................................................

    Start with the low-hanging fruits, quick-fixes, or just-do-its......................

    3.9 Quality Pillar # 9:.............................................................................

    Seek continuous improvement...............................................................

    3.10 Quality Pillar # 10:..........................................................................

    Imagine the ideal state. Seek perfection with a bias for action.................

    3.11 Quality Pillar # 11:..........................................................................

    Innovation............................................................................................

    4          Fundamental Pillars Related to Change Management.......................

    4.1 Quality Pillar # 12:............................................................................

    Blame the process, not the people.........................................................

    4.2 Quality Pillar # 13:............................................................................

    The root cause for many problems lies in miscommunication..................

    4.3 Quality Pillar # 14:............................................................................

    Show the gap, involve, and then execute the change plan.......................

    4.4 Quality Pillar # 15:............................................................................

    People are the weakest link in any improvement chain or project execution stages.     

    4.5 Quality Pillar # 16:............................................................................

    Empower your subordinates..................................................................

    4.6 Quality Pillar # 17:............................................................................

    When employees come up with a solution, they are more likely going to implement it

    4.7 Quality Pillar # 18:............................................................................

    Engagement..........................................................................................

    4.8 Quality Pillar # 19:............................................................................

    Cross-train............................................................................................

    5          Fundamental pillars related to Strategic Quality Management and Company-Wide Management System  

    5.1 Quality Pillar # 20:............................................................................

    Share the vision and ensure transparency...............................................

    5.2 Quality Pillar # 21:............................................................................

    Align all employees towards the same goals...........................................

    5.3 Quality Pillar # 22:............................................................................

    Do not start a quality program without management commitment..........

    5.4 Quality Pillar # 23:............................................................................

    Have a strategic approach to improvement utilizing an integrated company-wide management system (ICWMS).............................................................................................................

    5.4.1 Strategic Quality Management...................................................

    5.4.2 Quality Project Management.....................................................

    5.4.3 Daily Quality Management (or Operation Quality Management)..

    5.4.4 Process Management................................................................

    5.4.5 Quality Performance Management.............................................

    5.5 Quality Pillar # 24:............................................................................

    Have a strategic approach to drive Sustainability.....................................

    5.6 Quality Pillar # 25:............................................................................

    Adopt a self-assessment........................................................................

    5.7 Quality Pillar # 26:............................................................................

    Effectively lead a sustainable quality culture...........................................

    Part III     The Methodology of Six Sigma.....................................................

    6          Fundamental Pillars related to Six Sigma..........................................

    6.1 Quality Pillar # 27:............................................................................

    Use a structured approach for improvement..........................................

    6.2 Quality Pillar # 28:............................................................................

    Use a proper project selection approach.................................................

    6.3 Quality Pillar # 29:............................................................................

    Strive to achieve a higher Sigma-level.....................................................

    6.4 Quality Pillar # 30:............................................................................

    Hold the gains and control.....................................................................

    6.5 Quality Pillar # 31:............................................................................

    Learn from other DMAIC........................................................................

    7          Fundamental Pillars Related to the Use of Basic Quality Tools (Utilized in Six Sigma Projects)           

    7.1 Quality Pillar # 32:............................................................................

    It is powerful to have data.....................................................................

    7.2 Quality Pillar # 33:............................................................................

    Understand sampling and the use of a proper sample size.......................

    7.3 Quality Pillar # 34:............................................................................

    Use an appropriate distribution.............................................................

    7.4 Quality Pillar # 35:............................................................................

    Use hypothesis......................................................................................

    7.5 Quality Pillar # 36:............................................................................

    Achieve “stability”.................................................................................

    7.6 Quality Pillar # 37:............................................................................

    Evaluate the relationship between potential causes (or input factors) and an output variable, 

    7.7 Quality Pillar # 38:............................................................................

    Learn about the use of various team tools for decision-making................

    7.8 Quality Pillar # 39:............................................................................

    Ask why several times until reaching to the root causes of the problem...

    7.9 Quality Pillar # 40:............................................................................

    Tools like check sheets...........................................................................

    7.10 Quality Pillar # 41:..........................................................................

    Prioritize your improvement efforts.......................................................

    7.11 Quality Pillar # 42:..........................................................................

    Use process flow charts and maps..........................................................

    7.12 Quality Pillar # 43:..........................................................................

    Effectively manage the stakeholders of your improvement project and understand the basics of LSS project management.........................................................................................

    7.13 Quality Pillar # 44:..........................................................................

    Learn about the usage of the seven basic management and planning tools in LSS project management.              

    8          Fundamental Pillars Related to Additional Six Sigma Tools................

    8.1 Quality Pillar # 45:............................................................................

    Uncover defects using concentration diagrams.......................................

    8.2 Quality Pillar # 46:............................................................................

    Use a box plot to show the data.............................................................

    8.3 Quality Pillar # 47:............................................................................

    Verify if a sample is significantly different from another..........................

    8.4 Quality Pillar # 48:............................................................................

    Slow down to do more...........................................................................

    8.5 Quality Pillar # 49:............................................................................

    Learn to use offline simulation...............................................................

    8.6 Quality Pillar # 50:............................................................................

    Stratify data..........................................................................................

    8.7 Quality Pillar #51:............................................................................

    Use Main Effect plots and Multi-Vari charts............................................

    Part IV     Lean Management......................................................................

    9          Fundamental Pillars Related to Lean Management...........................

    9.1 Quality Pillar # 52:............................................................................

    Use value stream mapping.....................................................................

    9.2 Quality Pillar # 53:............................................................................

    Become Lean........................................................................................

    9.3 Quality Pillar # 54:............................................................................

    Do not perform an inspection or an audit unless it adds value.................

    9.4 Quality Pillar # 55:............................................................................

    Do not waste.........................................................................................

    9.5 Quality Pillar # 56:............................................................................

    Pull instead of push...............................................................................

    9.6 Quality Pillar # 57:............................................................................

    A Single point of Chaos..........................................................................

    9.7 Quality Pillar # 58:............................................................................

    Ensure the production line or streamline is balanced..............................

    9.8 Quality Pillar # 59:............................................................................

    Aim to match the cycle time with the “Takt” time...................................

    9.9 Quality Pillar # 60:............................................................................

    Improving one process stage (localized bottleneck..................................

    10          Fundamental Pillars Related to Visual Management........................

    10.1 Quality Pillar # 61:..........................................................................

    Visual Management...............................................................................

    10.2 Quality Pillar # 62:..........................................................................

    Use 5S..................................................................................................

    10.3 Quality Pillar # 63:..........................................................................

    There shall be a place for everything, and everything shall be in its place.

    10.4 Quality Pillar # 64:..........................................................................

    Tools shall be stored at the point of use.................................................

    10.5 Quality Pillar # 65:..........................................................................

    Use paced withdrawal or Heijunka.........................................................

    10.6 Quality Pillar # 66:..........................................................................

    Use a supermarket................................................................................

    11          Fundamental Pillars Related to Additional Lean Tools.....................

    11.1 Quality Pillar # 67:..........................................................................

    Standardize after every improvement to maintain the gains....................

    11.2 Quality Pillar # 68:..........................................................................

    Kaizen...................................................................................................

    11.3 Quality Pillar # 69:..........................................................................

    Design a product or a process for zero defects using mistake-proofing.....

    11.4 Quality Pillar # 70:..........................................................................

    Seek to achieve autonomous operation and maintenance using Jidoka....

    11.5 Quality Pillar # 71:..........................................................................

    Ensure machines are ready and available all the time by implementing total productive maintenance  

    11.6 Quality Pillar # 72:..........................................................................

    Execute changeover..............................................................................

    11.7 Quality Pillar # 73:..........................................................................

    Ensure you have a proper cell layout......................................................

    11.8 Quality Pillar # 74:..........................................................................

    Use Quality function deployment (QFD).................................................

    11.9 Quality Pillar #75:...........................................................................

    Use the Kano.........................................................................................

    Part V     Current and Future Quality Improvement Trends, Recommendations and Conclusions   

    12          Current and Future Quality Improvement Trends, Recommendations and Conclusions    

    12.1 Quality Pillar # 76:..........................................................................

    Use an integrated management system..................................................

    12.2 Current and Recent Quality Improvement Trends and Challenges:....

    12.3 Future Quality Improvement Trends and Challenges:.......................

    12.4 Quality Pillars # 77:........................................................................

    Understand what Quality 4.0.................................................................

    12.4.1 Big Data..................................................................................

    12.4.2 Blockchain...............................................................................

    12.4.3 Drones....................................................................................

    12.2.4 Robotic Process Automation (RPA)...........................................

    12.4.5 Three-Dimensional (3D) Printing...............................................

    12.4.6 Artificial Intelligence (AI)..........................................................

    12.4.7 Virtual Reality (VR)...................................................................

    12.4.8 Additional Examples for using  I4.0 Technologies.......................

    12.4.9 Essential Digital Technologies for Realizing the Vision of I4.0 and the Factories of the Future  

    12.4.10 Digital Shop-Floor Properties..................................................

    12.5 Summary of Additional Recommendations:.....................................

    12.6 Conclusion:....................................................................................

    References...............................................................................................

    Appendices...............................................................................................

    Appendix A...............................................................................................

    Case Study A.............................................................................................

    Supply Chain (SC) improvement Project..................................................

    Implementation of Lean Six Sigma (LSS) in supply chain management (SCM): an integrated and automated approach............................................................................................................

    Appendix B...............................................................................................

    Case Study B.............................................................................................

    Revenue Assurance Project....................................................................

    Implementation of Lean Six Sigma (LSS) in revenue assurance: an integrated and automated approach

    Index........................................................................................................

    Biography

    Dr. Souraj Salah received his B.Sc. in mechanical engineering specializing in industrial production engineering from Jordan University of Science and Technology, a Master’s degree of Engineering in mechanical engineering specializing in industrial engineering from Concordia University, Montreal (with Great Distinction), and a Ph.D. in mechanical engineering specializing in industrial engineering management from the University of New Brunswick where he won the Graduate Student Merit Award for two times.

    He is currently a part-time Adjunct Professor at Hamdan Bin Mohammed Smart University and also at Abu Dhabi School of Management (teaching courses like Japanese quality, quality tools and techniques, TQM fundamentals, and operations management). He also serves as a Member of the Industrial Engineering Advisory Committee at the American University of Sharjah, UAE. He also serves as a member of the advisory board for the Faculty of Engineering at the University of Sharjah.

    He is a Business Process Improvement Manager working in the logistics, contracting, services, and manufacturing sectors internationally. He worked for various local, multi-national and Fortune 500 companies across North America and the Middle East. His main research interests are quality control, Lean, Six Sigma, TQM, quality culture, operational excellence, and management systems.

    He has authored and co-authored one book -- Integrated Company-Wide Management Systems Combining Lean Six Sigma with Process Improvement -- and more than 30 papers that were published in various international journals (the best of which was cited over 470 times).

    In addition, he is certified as a Six Sigma Master Black Belt and Lean Leader trained by the Juran Institute, Lead Advisors, Alignment Strategies in Canada, and Johnson Controls Intl. in the USA, and as a Quality, Health, Safety, and Environment Management Systems (ISO 9001, ISO 14001, ISO 45001) Lead Auditor by Bureau Veritas. He has led and coached several Green Belt and Black Belt practitioners in executing numerous Lean Six Sigma Projects delivering millions of dollars in savings from the cost of poor quality. In 2015, he won the United Arab Emirates Quality Professional Award by the American Society for Quality (ASQ).