A History of the Modern Middle East examines the profound and often dramatic transformations of the region in the past two centuries, from the Ottoman and Egyptian reforms, through the challenge of Western imperialism, to the impact of US foreign policies. Built around a framework of political history, while also carefully integrating social, cultural, and economic developments, this expertly crafted account provides readers with the most comprehensive, balanced and penetrating analysis of the modern Middle East.
The sixth edition has been revised to provide a thorough account of the major developments since 2012, including the tumultuous aftermath of the Arab uprisings, the sectarian conflict in Iraq and civil war in Syria that led to the rise of ISIS, the crises in Libya and Yemen, and the United States' nuclear talks with Iran. With brand-new timelines in each part, updated select bibliographies, and expanded online instructor resources, A History of the Modern Middle East remains the quintessential text for courses on Middle East history.
Table of Contents
List of Illustrations Preface to the Sixth Edition Acknowledgments A Note About Place Names and Transliteration PART ONE: The Development of Islamic Civilization to the Eighteenth Century 1. The Rise and Expansion of Islam Pre-Islamic Arabia Muhammad and the Foundations of Islam The Arab Conquests and the First Empire The First Civil War and the End of the Rashidun Caliphate From Arab Exclusivism to Islamic Universalism: The Umayyad and Abbasid Empires Conclusion 2. The Development of Islamic Civilization to the Fifteenth Century Patterns of Islamic History The Creation and Uses of Wealth Islamic Rituals and Institutions Two Versions of Leadership: Sunni Caliph and Shi'a Imam The Middle East from the Eleventh to the Fifteenth Centuries: An Overview Conclusion 3. The Ottoman and Safavid Empires: A New Imperial Synthesis The Rise of the Ottoman Empire Ottoman Ruling Institutions and Attitudes The Loss of Ottoman Superiority The Triumph of Shi'ism: The Safavid Empire of Iran, 1501--1736 Conclusion: The Sunni-Shi'a Struggle for Iraq PART TWO: The Beginnings of the Era of Transformation 4. Forging a New Synthesis: The Pattern of Reforms, 1789--1849 Selim III (1789--1806: Between Old and New A Revived Center of Power: The Egypt of Muhammad Ali, 1805--1848 Nationalism and Great Power Intervention: The Greek Revolt, 1821--1829 Sultan Mahmud II (1808--1839): Centralization and Transformation Conclusion 5. The Ottoman Empire and Egypt During the Era of the Tanzimat The Tanzimat: Continued Ottoman Reform Under the Bureaucrats The Arab Provinces of Greater Syria During the Tanzimat Egypt During the Era of Civilian Reform Conclusion: The Dualism of the Nineteenth-Century Reforms 6. Egypt and Iran in the Late Nineteenth Century England on the Nile: The British Occupation of Egypt, 1882--1914 Iran During the Second Half of the Nineteenth Century Conclusion 7. The Response of Islamic Society Religious Assertiveness and Authoritarian Reform: The Era of Abdul Hamid II Islamic Puritanism on the Tribal Frontiers: The Wahhabi, Sanusi, and Mahdiyyah Movements The Reform of High Islam Emerging Currents of Arab Cultural Distinctiveness Conclusion 8. The Era of the Young Turks and the Iranian Constitutionalists The Revolt of 1908 and the Young Turks in Power The Period of the Iranian Constitutional Revolution Conclusion 9. World War I and the End of the Ottoman Order The Middle East in World War I: An Overview of Military and Diplomatic Initiatives The Peace Settlement Conclusion: The End of the Ottoman Order in the Middle East PART THREE: The Struggle for Independence: The Interwar Era to the End of World War II 10. Authoritarian Reform in Turkey and Iran The Ataturk Era in Turkey Iran under Reza Shah Turkey and Iran During World War II: Sovereignty and Occupation Conclusion 11. The Arab Struggle for Independence: Egypt, Iraq, and Transjordan from the Interwar Era to 1945 The Struggle for Power in Egypt in the Interwar Period An Overview of World War II Egypt During World War II: Pivot of the British Defense System Iraq Between the Wars Iraq During World War II Transjordan: The Desert Mandate Conclusion 12. The Arab Struggle for Independence: Syria, Lebanon, and Saudi Arabia from the Interwar Era to 1945 The French Mandate in Syria and Lebanon Lebanon under the Mandate: The Establishment of Confessional Politics Syria and Lebanon During World War II: The Troubled Path to Independence New Kingdom in Arabia: The Rise of the Saudi State The Search for Identity: Regionalism, Arabism, Islam Conclusion 13. The Palestine Mandate and the Birth of the State of Israel The Emergence of Political Zionism The Balfour Declaration The Mandate for Palestine: British Administration The Palestinian Arab Community: Leadership and Institutions The Jewish Community: Leadership and Institutions Immigration and Lands Communal Conflict and the British Response World War II and the Birth of the State of Israel The First Arab-Israeli War Conclusion PART FOUR: The Independent Middle East from the End of World War II to the 1970s 14. Democracy and Authoritarianism: Turkey and Iran The Role of the United States in the Postwar Years Turkey: The Transition to a Multiparty System Turkish Foreign Policy and the Cyprus Question Iran: The Reestablishment of Royal Autocracy Conclusion 15. The Middle East in the Age of Nasser: The Egyptian Base The Paralysis of the Old Regime, 1945--1952 The Free Officers and the Cou D'Etat of 1952 Foreign Relations after 1952 The Adoption of Arab Socialism Conclusion 16. The Middle East in the Age of Nasser: The Radicalization of Arab Politics Syria: The Military in Politics Iraq: The End of the Monarchy The Hasimite Kingdom of Jordan: The Survival of Monarchy Lebanon: The Precarious Sectarian Balance Israel, The Arab States, and the June War Conclusion: The Nasser Era in Perspective 17. Israel and the Palestinians from 1948 to the 1970s The Israeli Political System and Political Culture The Elections of 1977: Israel in Transition The Palestinian Factor after 1948 Conclusion PART FIVE: The Resurgence of Islam: The Middle East from the 1970s to the 1991 Gulf War 18. The Iranian Revolution and the Revival of Islam The Stages of Revolution in Iran The Revival of Islam Conclusion 19. Changing Patterns of War and Peace: Egypt and Lebanon in the 1970s and 1980s Egypt Under Sadat: Domestic and Diplomatic Realignments The Lebanese Civil War, 1975--1990 Egypt in the 1980s Conclusion 20. The Arabian Peninsula in the Petroleum Era The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Kuwait, Oman, and the Smaller Gulf States Conclusion 21. The Consolidation of Authoritarian Rule in Syria and Iraq: The Regimes of Hafiz al-Asad and Saddam Husayn Syria in the Al-Asad Era Iraq in the Era of Saddam Husayn and the Ba'th The Iran-Iraq War, 1980--1988 Conclusion PART SIX: Challenges to the Existing Order: The Middle East in the 1990s and 2000s 22. The Palestinian Intifada and the 1991 Gulf War The Intifada from 1987 to 1991 The Gulf Crisis of 1990--1991 The Aftermath of the Gulf War Conclusion 23. A Peace So Near, a Peace So Far: Palestinian-Israeli Relations Since the 1991 Gulf War The Road to the Oslo Peace Accords The Unraveling of the Oslo Peace Process The Road from Taba Conclusion 24. Patterns of Continuity and Change in Turkey, Iran, and Lebanon Turkey and Iran: Nations at a Crossroads Hizbullah and the Struggle for Lebanon Conclusion 25. America's Troubled Moment in the Middle East The Policy of Dual Containment Al-Qa'Ida and the Attacks of September 11, 2001 The Occupation of Iraq Iran's Nuclear Program Conclusion 26. The 2011 Arab Uprisings and Their Aftermath Understanding the Uprisings' Dynamics Egypt Syria Yemen and Libya Saudi Arabia and the Gulf Monarchies Conclusion: Connecting Threads List of Major Rulers Glossary Select Bibliography Index
William L Cleveland