Accident/Incident Prevention Techniques: 2nd Edition (Paperback) book cover

Accident/Incident Prevention Techniques

2nd Edition

By Charles D. Reese

CRC Press

624 pages | 145 B/W Illus.

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Published more than ten years ago, the first edition of Accident/Incident Prevention Techniques provided clear, comprehensive guidance on how to mitigate the cost, in personnel and to the bottom line, of accidents/incidents in the workplace. Significantly revised and updated, this Second Edition takes its place as the A to Z hands-on guide to the responsibilities, principles, tools, and techniques involved in accident investigative planning and preparation.

Written by safety expert Charles D. Reese, the book details tried and true techniques that have been used by the occupational safety and health community for many years. It also presents the best theoretical methods to help those responsible for occupational safety develop the best prevention initiative for them and their workforce. Based on the premise that all businesses and industries must face the reality that occupational accidents and illnesses will transpire and the results of these events will have a negative impact on the company’s bottom line, the book provides practical examples, easy-to-implement processes, numerous illustrations, and usable forms throughout.

See What’s New in the Second Edition

  • Topics such as safety culture and behavior-based safety
  • Expanded coverage of some topics such as analysis tools and accident investigation
  • Updated statistical data, sources, and contacts
  • Updated changes in regulations and compliance
  • Relevance with current trends and issues in accident prevention

By investigating the various methods and equipment used in system safety applications, the book covers a myriad of accident/incident prevention techniques and supplies the illustrations and tools that allow readers to begin to develop and build a safety and health program in their workplace. The author draws on his more than 30 years of experience to supply a template for the development of an effective safety and health program.


"… a valuable reference for anyone responsible for workplace safety … Everything any employer might need to create and administer a complete workplace safety program is here in one volume. …"


Table of Contents


Why Injury Prevention?

Accidents or Incidents

Accident/Incident Prevention Process

Comprehensive Accident Prevention

Accident Prevention

Accident Prevention Benefits

Preventing Occupational Accidents/Incidents

Nothing New in Prevention

How Much Prevention?

Risk Control

Structuring Accident/Incident Prevention

Know Who You Are Dealing With

Determining the Cause of Accidents

Accident Prevention Techniques


Safety and Health Programs


Reasons for a Comprehensive Safety Program

Safety and Health Management Process

Building a Safety and Health Program

Characteristics of an Occupational Safety and Health Program

Tools for a Safety and Health Program Assessment

Assessing the Key Components of Leadership, Participation, and Line Accountability

Assessing the Key Components of Worksite Analysis

Assessing the Key Components of Hazard Prevention and Control



Accident/Incident Investigation


Purpose of Accident Investigations

Accident Prevention

Reporting Accidents

Organizing and Assigning Responsibilities

Supervisors and Accident Investigation

Investigations Benefit the Supervisor

Preplanning an Accident Investigation

Investigation Process

Handling the Evidence

Developing Accident Investigation Forms

Final Report of Investigation




Hazard Recognition and Avoidance

Hazard Identification

Emphasis on Hazards

Accident Causes

Hazard Analysis

Worksite Hazard Analysis

Training on Hazard Identification

Worksite Hazard Identification

Ranking Hazards

Hazard and Cost Avoidance

Hazard Control

Techniques of Hazard Control



Accountability and Responsibility


The Safety and Health Professional

The Line Supervisor.

Using the Supervisor Evaluation Form

The Worker86


Motivating Safety and Health


Planning the Motivational Approach


Self-Motivated Workers

Changing Behavior

Behavior-Based Safety

Factors Affecting Motivation

Safety Culture

Visual Motivators

Nonfinancial Incentives



Accident/Incident Analysis


Breakdown of Causes

Mishap Probability



Root Cause Analysis


Phase I: Data Collection

Phase II: Assessment

Phase III: Corrective Actions

Phase IV: Inform

Phase V: Follow-Up



Causal Factor Analysis



Determining Causal Factors

Event Factor Chains (Charting) and Explanation

Benefits of Events and Causal Factors Charting

Using Causal Factor Analysis (Event Factor Chains or Charting)

Causal Factor Worksheet



Change Analysis


When to Use Change Analysis

How to Use Change Analysis

Structuring the Analysis



Barrier Analysis


Physical Barrier Analysis

Human Barrier Analysis

Wrap-Up of Preliminary Data Analysis

Interpretation of PBA and HBA


Job Safety/Hazard Analysis


Performing a JSA/JHA

Four Basic Steps of a JSA/JHA

Selecting a Job to Analyze

The Job Safety/Hazard Analysis Worksheet

Separating the Job into Its Basic Steps

Sequence of Basic Job Steps

Identifying the Hazards Associated with Each Job Step

Consider Human Problems in the JSA/JHA Process 186

Eliminating or Controlling the Hazards

Change Job Procedures

Change the Frequency of Performing the Job

Personal Protective Equipment



Safe Operating Procedures (SOPs)


Components of an SOP

Guidelines for Writing an SOP

How SOPs Work



Job Safety Observation


Purpose of Job Safety Observation

Types of Job Safety Observations

Selecting a Job or Task for a Planned Job Safety Observation

Preparing for a Planned Safety Observation

Checklist of Activities to Observe

Unsafe Procedures

The Observation

After the Observation

Dealing with Unsafe Behaviors or Poor Performance



Safety and Health Audits


The Need for an Audit

When to Audit

What to Audit

Types of Audit Instruments

Develop and Evaluate Audit Scores

Qualifications of Auditors



Fleet Safety Program


Written Fleet Safety Program

Vehicle/Equipment Maintenance

Regulations and Motor Vehicles


Operator Recruitment and Selection

Records to Maintain

Operator Training

Company Operator’s Manual

Pre-Operation Inspection

Driving Tasks

Safe Driving Recognition

Planning Schedules, Loads, and Routes

Preventing Accidents


Preventive Maintenance Programs


Components of a PMP

Preventive Maintenance

Management’s Role

The Preventive Maintenance Program (PMP)

Operators’ Inspections


Management Responsibility



Special Emphasis Programs


Ladder Safety Program




Using Safety and Health Consultants


Need for a Consultant

Conducting the Interview

Scope of Work

Final Hiring Steps



Safety and Health Training


When to Train

Training New Hires

Training Supervisors

Training Employees

Documenting Safety and Health Training

After the Training

Safety Talks

Safety Talks and Meetings

OSHA Training Requirements

OSHA Training Guidelines

Legal Aspect of Training

OSHA Training Model

Matching Training to Employees

Identifying Employees at Risk

Training Employees at Risk



Analyzing Accident Data


OSHA Recordkeeping

Company Records

Important Ancillary Data Needed for More Complete Analysis

Statistical Analysis for Comparisons

Workers’ Compensation

Cost of Accidents



Prevention and OSHA Regulations


Federal Laws.309

Regulation Process

Federal Register

The Purpose of OSHA

Code of Federal Regulations

CFR Numbering System

OSHA Standards Covered

Copies of the OSHA Standards

Relief (Variance) from an OSHA Standard

OSHAct Protects

The Role of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)

The Role of the Occupational Safety and Health Review Commission (OSHRC)

Employers are Responsible for Workers’ Safety and Health

Workers’ Rights

Workers’ Responsibilities under the Law

The Right Not to Be Discriminated Against

The Right to Know

Environmental Monitoring Results

Personal Protective Clothing

OSHA Inspections

OSHA Receives a Complaint


Types of Violations

Challenging Citations, Penalties, and Other Enforcement Measures

Workers Get the Results of an Inspection

Determining Penalties

State Programs

Workers’ Training

Occupational Injuries and Illnesses

Medical and Exposure Records


What to Do When OSHA Comes Knocking



Health Hazard Prevention



Back Injuries

Bloodborne Pathogens


Cold Stress


Hazardous Chemicals

Hazardous Waste

Heat Stress

Ionizing Radiation



Noise-Induced Hearing Loss

Nonionizing Radiation


Workplace Stress


Controls and Personal Protective Equipment


Controlling Hazards

Personal Protective Equipment

Establishing a PPE Program

Hazard Assessment

Eye and Face Protection

Head Protection

Foot and Leg Protection

Hand and Arm Protection

Body Protection

Hearing Protection

Respiratory Protection



Safety Hazards


Abrasive Blasting (29 CFR 1910.94 and 1910.244)

Abrasive Wheel Equipment/Grinders (29 CFR 1910.212, 1910.215, and 1910.243)

Air Receivers (29 CFR 1910.169)

Aisles and Passageways (29 CFR 1910.17, 1910.22, and 1910.176)

Belt Sanding Machines (29 CFR 1910.213)

Chains, Cables, Ropes, and Hooks (29 CFR 1910.179 and 1910.180)

Compressors and Compressed Air (29 CFR 1910.242)

Compressed Gas Cylinders (29 CFR 1910.101 and 1910.253)

Compressed Gases (29 CFR 1910.101, 1910.102, 1910.103, 1910.104, 1910.106, and 1910.253)

Confined Spaces (29 CFR 1910.146)

Containers and Portable Tank Storage (29 CFR 1910.106)

Control of Hazardous Energy Sources [Lockout/Tagout] (29 CFR 1910.147)

Crane, Derrick, and Hoist Safety (29 CFR 1910.179, 1910.180, and 1910.181)

Dip Tanks Containing Flammable or Combustible Liquid (29 CFR 1910.108)

Dockboards (29 CFR 1910.30)

Drinking Water (29 CFR 1910.141)

Electrical (29 CFR 1910.303, 1910.304, 1910.305, 1910.331, and 1910.333)

Elevated Surfaces (29 CFR 1910.23)

Emergency Action Plans (29 CFR 1910.38)

Exit Doors (29 CFR 1910.36)

Exits and Exit Routes (29 CFR 1910.36)

Explosives and Blasting Agents (29 CFR 1910.109)

Fan Blades (29 CFR 1910.212)

Fall Protection (29 CFR 1910.23 and 1910.66 Appendix I)

Fire Protection (29 CFR 1910.157)

Flammable and Combustible Liquids (29 CFR 1910.106)

Flammable and Combustible Materials

Floors [General Conditions] (29 CFR 1910.22 and 1920.23)

Forklift Trucks [Powered Industrial Trucks] (29 CFR 1910.178)

Fueling (29 CFR 1910.178, 1910.180, and 1910.181)

Hand Tools (29 CFR 1910.242)

Hoist and Auxiliary Equipment (29 CFR 1910.179)

Housekeeping (29 CFR 1910.22)

Hydraulic Power Tools (29 CFR 1910.217)

Jacks (29 CFR 1910.244)

Ladders, Fixed (29 CFR 1910.27)

Ladders, Portable (29 CFR 1910.25 and 1910.26)

Lunch Rooms (29 CFR 1910.141)

Machine Guarding (29 CFR 1910.212 and 1910.219)

Machinery, Fixed (29 CFR 1910.212)

Material Handling (29 CFR 1910.176)

Mechanical Power Presses (29 CFR 1910.217)

Motor Vehicle Safety

Pneumatic Tools (29 CFR 1910.243)

Portable (Power Operated) Tools and Equipment (29 CFR 1910.243)

Powder-Actuated Tools (29 CFR 1910.243)

Powered Platforms for Building Maintenance (29 CFR 1910.66)

Power Transmission Equipment Guarding (29 CFR 1910.219)

Pressure Vessels (29 CFR 1910.106, 1910.216, and 1910.217)

Railings (29 CFR 1910.23)

Saws, Portable Circular (29 CFR 1910.243)

Scaffolds (29 CFR 1910.28)

Skylights (29 CFR 1910.23)

Spray-Finishing Operations (29 CFR 1910.107)

Stairs, Fixed Industrial (29 CFR 1910.23 and 1910.24)

Storage (29 CFR 1910.176)

Tanks, Open-Surface (29 CFR 1910.94)

Tire Inflation

Toeboards (29 CFR 1910.23)

Toilets (29 CFR 1910.141)

Transporting Employees and Materials

Walking/Working Surfaces (29 CFR 1910.21 and 1910.22)

Welding, Cutting, and Brazing (29 CFR 1910.251, 1910.252, 1910.253, 1910.254, and 1910.255)

Woodworking Machinery (29 CFR 1910.213)

Workplace Violence





Appendix A: Written Safety and Health Program

Appendix B: Accident Investigation Forms (Revised)

Appendix C: Causal Analysis Worksheets

Appendix D: OSHA Safety and Health Training Requirements

Appendix E: OSHA Regional Offices and State Plan Offices

Appendix F: Sample Glove Selection Charts

Appendix G: Occupational Safety and Health Resources and Information Sources


About the Author

For 30 years Dr. Charles D. Reese has been involved with occupational safety and health as an educator, manager, or consultant. In Dr. Reese’s early beginnings in occupational safety and health, he held the position of industrial hygienist at the National Mine Health and Safety Academy. He later assumed the responsibility of manager for the nation’s occupational trauma research initiative at the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health’s (NIOSH) Division of Safety Research. Dr. Reese has had an integral part in trying to assure that workplace safety and health is provided for all those within the workplace. As the managing director for the Laborers’ Health and Safety Fund of North America, his responsibilities were aimed at protecting the 650,000 members of the laborers’ union in the United States and Canada.

He has developed many occupational safety and health training programs, which run the gamut from radioactive waste remediation to confined space entry. Dr. Reese has written numerous articles, pamphlets, and books on related safety and health issues.

Dr. Reese, Professor Emeritus, was a member of the graduate and undergraduate faculty at the University of Connecticut, where he taught courses on OSHA regulations, safety and health management, accident prevention techniques, industrial hygiene, ergonomics, and environmental trends and issues. As professor of environmental /occupational safety and health, he coordinated the bulk of the environmental, safety and health efforts at the University of Connecticut. He is called upon to consult with industry on safety and health issues and is often asked for expert consultation in legal cases.

Dr. Reese also is the principal author of the:

Handbook of OSHA Construction Safety and Health (Second Edition),

Material Handling Systems: Designing for Safety and Health,

Annotated Dictionary of Construction Safety and Health,

Occupational Health and Safety Management: A Practical Approach (Second Edition),

Office Building Safety and Health

Accident/Incident Prevention Techniques (Second Edition),

The Four Volume Set Entitled: Handbook of Safety and Health for the Service Industry:

Volume 1: Industrial Safety and Health for Goods and Materials Services

Volume 2: Industrial Safety and Health for Infrastructure Services

Volume 3: Industrial Safety and Health for Administrative Services

Volume 4: Industrial Safety and Health for People Oriented Services

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
LAW / Environmental
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Industrial Health & Safety