Accident/Incident Prevention Techniques  book cover
2nd Edition

Accident/Incident Prevention Techniques

ISBN 9781439855096
Published October 25, 2011 by CRC Press
624 Pages 145 B/W Illustrations

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Book Description

Published more than ten years ago, the first edition of Accident/Incident Prevention Techniques provided clear, comprehensive guidance on how to mitigate the cost, in personnel and to the bottom line, of accidents/incidents in the workplace. Significantly revised and updated, this Second Edition takes its place as the A to Z hands-on guide to the responsibilities, principles, tools, and techniques involved in accident investigative planning and preparation.

Written by safety expert Charles D. Reese, the book details tried and true techniques that have been used by the occupational safety and health community for many years. It also presents the best theoretical methods to help those responsible for occupational safety develop the best prevention initiative for them and their workforce. Based on the premise that all businesses and industries must face the reality that occupational accidents and illnesses will transpire and the results of these events will have a negative impact on the company’s bottom line, the book provides practical examples, easy-to-implement processes, numerous illustrations, and usable forms throughout.

See What’s New in the Second Edition

  • Topics such as safety culture and behavior-based safety
  • Expanded coverage of some topics such as analysis tools and accident investigation
  • Updated statistical data, sources, and contacts
  • Updated changes in regulations and compliance
  • Relevance with current trends and issues in accident prevention

By investigating the various methods and equipment used in system safety applications, the book covers a myriad of accident/incident prevention techniques and supplies the illustrations and tools that allow readers to begin to develop and build a safety and health program in their workplace. The author draws on his more than 30 years of experience to supply a template for the development of an effective safety and health program.

Table of Contents

Why Injury Prevention?
Accidents or Incidents
Accident/Incident Prevention Process
Comprehensive Accident Prevention
Accident Prevention
Accident Prevention Benefits
Preventing Occupational Accidents/Incidents
Nothing New in Prevention
How Much Prevention?
Risk Control
Structuring Accident/Incident Prevention
Know Who You Are Dealing With
Determining the Cause of Accidents
Accident Prevention Techniques

Safety and Health Programs
Reasons for a Comprehensive Safety Program
Safety and Health Management Process
Building a Safety and Health Program
Characteristics of an Occupational Safety and Health Program
Tools for a Safety and Health Program Assessment
Assessing the Key Components of Leadership, Participation, and Line Accountability
Assessing the Key Components of Worksite Analysis
Assessing the Key Components of Hazard Prevention and Control

Accident/Incident Investigation
Purpose of Accident Investigations
Accident Prevention
Reporting Accidents
Organizing and Assigning Responsibilities
Supervisors and Accident Investigation
Investigations Benefit the Supervisor
Preplanning an Accident Investigation
Investigation Process
Handling the Evidence
Developing Accident Investigation Forms
Final Report of Investigation

Hazard Recognition and Avoidance
Hazard Identification
Emphasis on Hazards
Accident Causes
Hazard Analysis
Worksite Hazard Analysis
Training on Hazard Identification
Worksite Hazard Identification
Ranking Hazards
Hazard and Cost Avoidance
Hazard Control
Techniques of Hazard Control

Accountability and Responsibility
The Safety and Health Professional
The Line Supervisor.
Using the Supervisor Evaluation Form
The Worker86

Motivating Safety and Health
Planning the Motivational Approach
Self-Motivated Workers
Changing Behavior
Behavior-Based Safety
Factors Affecting Motivation
Safety Culture
Visual Motivators
Nonfinancial Incentives

Accident/Incident Analysis
Breakdown of Causes
Mishap Probability

Root Cause Analysis
Phase I: Data Collection
Phase II: Assessment
Phase III: Corrective Actions
Phase IV: Inform
Phase V: Follow-Up

Causal Factor Analysis
Determining Causal Factors
Event Factor Chains (Charting) and Explanation
Benefits of Events and Causal Factors Charting
Using Causal Factor Analysis (Event Factor Chains or Charting)
Causal Factor Worksheet

Change Analysis
When to Use Change Analysis
How to Use Change Analysis
Structuring the Analysis

Barrier Analysis
Physical Barrier Analysis
Human Barrier Analysis
Wrap-Up of Preliminary Data Analysis
Interpretation of PBA and HBA

Job Safety/Hazard Analysis
Performing a JSA/JHA
Four Basic Steps of a JSA/JHA
Selecting a Job to Analyze
The Job Safety/Hazard Analysis Worksheet
Separating the Job into Its Basic Steps
Sequence of Basic Job Steps
Identifying the Hazards Associated with Each Job Step
Consider Human Problems in the JSA/JHA Process 186
Eliminating or Controlling the Hazards
Change Job Procedures
Change the Frequency of Performing the Job
Personal Protective Equipment

Safe Operating Procedures (SOPs)
Components of an SOP
Guidelines for Writing an SOP
How SOPs Work

Job Safety Observation
Purpose of Job Safety Observation
Types of Job Safety Observations
Selecting a Job or Task for a Planned Job Safety Observation
Preparing for a Planned Safety Observation
Checklist of Activities to Observe
Unsafe Procedures
The Observation
After the Observation
Dealing with Unsafe Behaviors or Poor Performance

Safety and Health Audits
The Need for an Audit
When to Audit
What to Audit
Types of Audit Instruments
Develop and Evaluate Audit Scores
Qualifications of Auditors

Fleet Safety Program
Written Fleet Safety Program
Vehicle/Equipment Maintenance
Regulations and Motor Vehicles
Operator Recruitment and Selection
Records to Maintain
Operator Training
Company Operator’s Manual
Pre-Operation Inspection
Driving Tasks
Safe Driving Recognition
Planning Schedules, Loads, and Routes
Preventing Accidents

Preventive Maintenance Programs
Components of a PMP
Preventive Maintenance
Management’s Role
The Preventive Maintenance Program (PMP)
Operators’ Inspections
Management Responsibility

Special Emphasis Programs
Ladder Safety Program

Using Safety and Health Consultants
Need for a Consultant
Conducting the Interview
Scope of Work
Final Hiring Steps

Safety and Health Training
When to Train
Training New Hires
Training Supervisors
Training Employees
Documenting Safety and Health Training
After the Training
Safety Talks
Safety Talks and Meetings
OSHA Training Requirements
OSHA Training Guidelines
Legal Aspect of Training
OSHA Training Model
Matching Training to Employees
Identifying Employees at Risk
Training Employees at Risk

Analyzing Accident Data
OSHA Recordkeeping
Company Records
Important Ancillary Data Needed for More Complete Analysis
Statistical Analysis for Comparisons
Workers’ Compensation
Cost of Accidents

Prevention and OSHA Regulations
Federal Laws.309
Regulation Process
Federal Register
The Purpose of OSHA
Code of Federal Regulations
CFR Numbering System
OSHA Standards Covered
Copies of the OSHA Standards
Relief (Variance) from an OSHA Standard
OSHAct Protects
The Role of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)
The Role of the Occupational Safety and Health Review Commission (OSHRC)
Employers are Responsible for Workers’ Safety and Health
Workers’ Rights
Workers’ Responsibilities under the Law
The Right Not to Be Discriminated Against
The Right to Know
Environmental Monitoring Results
Personal Protective Clothing
OSHA Inspections
OSHA Receives a Complaint
Types of Violations
Challenging Citations, Penalties, and Other Enforcement Measures
Workers Get the Results of an Inspection
Determining Penalties
State Programs
Workers’ Training
Occupational Injuries and Illnesses
Medical and Exposure Records
What to Do When OSHA Comes Knocking

Health Hazard Prevention
Back Injuries
Bloodborne Pathogens
Cold Stress
Hazardous Chemicals
Hazardous Waste
Heat Stress
Ionizing Radiation
Noise-Induced Hearing Loss
Nonionizing Radiation
Workplace Stress

Controls and Personal Protective Equipment
Controlling Hazards
Personal Protective Equipment
Establishing a PPE Program
Hazard Assessment
Eye and Face Protection
Head Protection
Foot and Leg Protection
Hand and Arm Protection
Body Protection
Hearing Protection
Respiratory Protection

Safety Hazards
Abrasive Blasting (29 CFR 1910.94 and 1910.244)
Abrasive Wheel Equipment/Grinders (29 CFR 1910.212, 1910.215, and 1910.243)
Air Receivers (29 CFR 1910.169)
Aisles and Passageways (29 CFR 1910.17, 1910.22, and 1910.176)
Belt Sanding Machines (29 CFR 1910.213)
Chains, Cables, Ropes, and Hooks (29 CFR 1910.179 and 1910.180)
Compressors and Compressed Air (29 CFR 1910.242)
Compressed Gas Cylinders (29 CFR 1910.101 and 1910.253)
Compressed Gases (29 CFR 1910.101, 1910.102, 1910.103, 1910.104, 1910.106, and 1910.253)
Confined Spaces (29 CFR 1910.146)
Containers and Portable Tank Storage (29 CFR 1910.106)
Control of Hazardous Energy Sources [Lockout/Tagout] (29 CFR 1910.147)
Crane, Derrick, and Hoist Safety (29 CFR 1910.179, 1910.180, and 1910.181)
Dip Tanks Containing Flammable or Combustible Liquid (29 CFR 1910.108)
Dockboards (29 CFR 1910.30)
Drinking Water (29 CFR 1910.141)
Electrical (29 CFR 1910.303, 1910.304, 1910.305, 1910.331, and 1910.333)
Elevated Surfaces (29 CFR 1910.23)
Emergency Action Plans (29 CFR 1910.38)
Exit Doors (29 CFR 1910.36)
Exits and Exit Routes (29 CFR 1910.36)
Explosives and Blasting Agents (29 CFR 1910.109)
Fan Blades (29 CFR 1910.212)
Fall Protection (29 CFR 1910.23 and 1910.66 Appendix I)
Fire Protection (29 CFR 1910.157)
Flammable and Combustible Liquids (29 CFR 1910.106)
Flammable and Combustible Materials
Floors [General Conditions] (29 CFR 1910.22 and 1920.23)
Forklift Trucks [Powered Industrial Trucks] (29 CFR 1910.178)
Fueling (29 CFR 1910.178, 1910.180, and 1910.181)
Hand Tools (29 CFR 1910.242)
Hoist and Auxiliary Equipment (29 CFR 1910.179)
Housekeeping (29 CFR 1910.22)
Hydraulic Power Tools (29 CFR 1910.217)
Jacks (29 CFR 1910.244)
Ladders, Fixed (29 CFR 1910.27)
Ladders, Portable (29 CFR 1910.25 and 1910.26)
Lunch Rooms (29 CFR 1910.141)
Machine Guarding (29 CFR 1910.212 and 1910.219)
Machinery, Fixed (29 CFR 1910.212)
Material Handling (29 CFR 1910.176)
Mechanical Power Presses (29 CFR 1910.217)
Motor Vehicle Safety
Pneumatic Tools (29 CFR 1910.243)
Portable (Power Operated) Tools and Equipment (29 CFR 1910.243)
Powder-Actuated Tools (29 CFR 1910.243)
Powered Platforms for Building Maintenance (29 CFR 1910.66)
Power Transmission Equipment Guarding (29 CFR 1910.219)
Pressure Vessels (29 CFR 1910.106, 1910.216, and 1910.217)
Railings (29 CFR 1910.23)
Saws, Portable Circular (29 CFR 1910.243)
Scaffolds (29 CFR 1910.28)
Skylights (29 CFR 1910.23)
Spray-Finishing Operations (29 CFR 1910.107)
Stairs, Fixed Industrial (29 CFR 1910.23 and 1910.24)
Storage (29 CFR 1910.176)
Tanks, Open-Surface (29 CFR 1910.94)
Tire Inflation
Toeboards (29 CFR 1910.23)
Toilets (29 CFR 1910.141)
Transporting Employees and Materials
Walking/Working Surfaces (29 CFR 1910.21 and 1910.22)
Welding, Cutting, and Brazing (29 CFR 1910.251, 1910.252, 1910.253, 1910.254, and 1910.255)
Woodworking Machinery (29 CFR 1910.213)
Workplace Violence


Appendix A: Written Safety and Health Program
Appendix B: Accident Investigation Forms (Revised)
Appendix C: Causal Analysis Worksheets
Appendix D: OSHA Safety and Health Training Requirements
Appendix E: OSHA Regional Offices and State Plan Offices
Appendix F: Sample Glove Selection Charts
Appendix G: Occupational Safety and Health Resources and Information Sources

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For 30 years Dr. Charles D. Reese has been involved with occupational safety and health as an educator, manager, or consultant. In Dr. Reese’s early beginnings in occupational safety and health, he held the position of industrial hygienist at the National Mine Health and Safety Academy. He later assumed the responsibility of manager for the nation’s occupational trauma research initiative at the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health’s (NIOSH) Division of Safety Research. Dr. Reese has had an integral part in trying to assure that workplace safety and health is provided for all those within the workplace. As the managing director for the Laborers’ Health and Safety Fund of North America, his responsibilities were aimed at protecting the 650,000 members of the laborers’ union in the United States and Canada.

He has developed many occupational safety and health training programs, which run the gamut from radioactive waste remediation to confined space entry. Dr. Reese has written numerous articles, pamphlets, and books on related safety and health issues.

Dr. Reese, Professor Emeritus, was a member of the graduate and undergraduate faculty at the University of Connecticut, where he taught courses on OSHA regulations, safety and health management, accident prevention techniques, industrial hygiene, ergonomics, and environmental trends and issues. As professor of environmental /occupational safety and health, he coordinated the bulk of the environmental, safety and health efforts at the University of Connecticut. He is called upon to consult with industry on safety and health issues and is often asked for expert consultation in legal cases.

Dr. Reese also is the principal author of the:

Handbook of OSHA Construction Safety and Health (Second Edition),
Material Handling Systems: Designing for Safety and Health,
Annotated Dictionary of Construction Safety and Health,
Occupational Health and Safety Management: A Practical Approach (Second Edition),
Office Building Safety and Health
Accident/Incident Prevention Techniques (Second Edition),
The Four Volume Set Entitled: Handbook of Safety and Health for the Service Industry:
Volume 1: Industrial Safety and Health for Goods and Materials Services
Volume 2: Industrial Safety and Health for Infrastructure Services
Volume 3: Industrial Safety and Health for Administrative Services
Volume 4: Industrial Safety and Health for People Oriented Services


"… a valuable reference for anyone responsible for workplace safety … Everything any employer might need to create and administer a complete workplace safety program is here in one volume. …"