2nd Edition

Accident/Incident Prevention Techniques

By Charles D. Reese Copyright 2012
    624 Pages 145 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    624 Pages 145 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    Published more than ten years ago, the first edition of Accident/Incident Prevention Techniques provided clear, comprehensive guidance on how to mitigate the cost, in personnel and to the bottom line, of accidents/incidents in the workplace. Significantly revised and updated, this Second Edition takes its place as the A to Z hands-on guide to the responsibilities, principles, tools, and techniques involved in accident investigative planning and preparation.

    Written by safety expert Charles D. Reese, the book details tried and true techniques that have been used by the occupational safety and health community for many years. It also presents the best theoretical methods to help those responsible for occupational safety develop the best prevention initiative for them and their workforce. Based on the premise that all businesses and industries must face the reality that occupational accidents and illnesses will transpire and the results of these events will have a negative impact on the company’s bottom line, the book provides practical examples, easy-to-implement processes, numerous illustrations, and usable forms throughout.

    See What’s New in the Second Edition

    • Topics such as safety culture and behavior-based safety
    • Expanded coverage of some topics such as analysis tools and accident investigation
    • Updated statistical data, sources, and contacts
    • Updated changes in regulations and compliance
    • Relevance with current trends and issues in accident prevention

    By investigating the various methods and equipment used in system safety applications, the book covers a myriad of accident/incident prevention techniques and supplies the illustrations and tools that allow readers to begin to develop and build a safety and health program in their workplace. The author draws on his more than 30 years of experience to supply a template for the development of an effective safety and health program.

    Why Injury Prevention?
    Accidents or Incidents
    Accident/Incident Prevention Process
    Comprehensive Accident Prevention
    Accident Prevention
    Accident Prevention Benefits
    Preventing Occupational Accidents/Incidents
    Nothing New in Prevention
    How Much Prevention?
    Risk Control
    Structuring Accident/Incident Prevention
    Know Who You Are Dealing With
    Determining the Cause of Accidents
    Accident Prevention Techniques

    Safety and Health Programs
    Reasons for a Comprehensive Safety Program
    Safety and Health Management Process
    Building a Safety and Health Program
    Characteristics of an Occupational Safety and Health Program
    Tools for a Safety and Health Program Assessment
    Assessing the Key Components of Leadership, Participation, and Line Accountability
    Assessing the Key Components of Worksite Analysis
    Assessing the Key Components of Hazard Prevention and Control

    Accident/Incident Investigation
    Purpose of Accident Investigations
    Accident Prevention
    Reporting Accidents
    Organizing and Assigning Responsibilities
    Supervisors and Accident Investigation
    Investigations Benefit the Supervisor
    Preplanning an Accident Investigation
    Investigation Process
    Handling the Evidence
    Developing Accident Investigation Forms
    Final Report of Investigation

    Hazard Recognition and Avoidance
    Hazard Identification
    Emphasis on Hazards
    Accident Causes
    Hazard Analysis
    Worksite Hazard Analysis
    Training on Hazard Identification
    Worksite Hazard Identification
    Ranking Hazards
    Hazard and Cost Avoidance
    Hazard Control
    Techniques of Hazard Control

    Accountability and Responsibility
    The Safety and Health Professional
    The Line Supervisor.
    Using the Supervisor Evaluation Form
    The Worker86

    Motivating Safety and Health
    Planning the Motivational Approach
    Self-Motivated Workers
    Changing Behavior
    Behavior-Based Safety
    Factors Affecting Motivation
    Safety Culture
    Visual Motivators
    Nonfinancial Incentives

    Accident/Incident Analysis
    Breakdown of Causes
    Mishap Probability

    Root Cause Analysis
    Phase I: Data Collection
    Phase II: Assessment
    Phase III: Corrective Actions
    Phase IV: Inform
    Phase V: Follow-Up

    Causal Factor Analysis
    Determining Causal Factors
    Event Factor Chains (Charting) and Explanation
    Benefits of Events and Causal Factors Charting
    Using Causal Factor Analysis (Event Factor Chains or Charting)
    Causal Factor Worksheet

    Change Analysis
    When to Use Change Analysis
    How to Use Change Analysis
    Structuring the Analysis

    Barrier Analysis
    Physical Barrier Analysis
    Human Barrier Analysis
    Wrap-Up of Preliminary Data Analysis
    Interpretation of PBA and HBA

    Job Safety/Hazard Analysis
    Performing a JSA/JHA
    Four Basic Steps of a JSA/JHA
    Selecting a Job to Analyze
    The Job Safety/Hazard Analysis Worksheet
    Separating the Job into Its Basic Steps
    Sequence of Basic Job Steps
    Identifying the Hazards Associated with Each Job Step
    Consider Human Problems in the JSA/JHA Process 186
    Eliminating or Controlling the Hazards
    Change Job Procedures
    Change the Frequency of Performing the Job
    Personal Protective Equipment

    Safe Operating Procedures (SOPs)
    Components of an SOP
    Guidelines for Writing an SOP
    How SOPs Work

    Job Safety Observation
    Purpose of Job Safety Observation
    Types of Job Safety Observations
    Selecting a Job or Task for a Planned Job Safety Observation
    Preparing for a Planned Safety Observation
    Checklist of Activities to Observe
    Unsafe Procedures
    The Observation
    After the Observation
    Dealing with Unsafe Behaviors or Poor Performance

    Safety and Health Audits
    The Need for an Audit
    When to Audit
    What to Audit
    Types of Audit Instruments
    Develop and Evaluate Audit Scores
    Qualifications of Auditors

    Fleet Safety Program
    Written Fleet Safety Program
    Vehicle/Equipment Maintenance
    Regulations and Motor Vehicles
    Operator Recruitment and Selection
    Records to Maintain
    Operator Training
    Company Operator’s Manual
    Pre-Operation Inspection
    Driving Tasks
    Safe Driving Recognition
    Planning Schedules, Loads, and Routes
    Preventing Accidents

    Preventive Maintenance Programs
    Components of a PMP
    Preventive Maintenance
    Management’s Role
    The Preventive Maintenance Program (PMP)
    Operators’ Inspections
    Management Responsibility

    Special Emphasis Programs
    Ladder Safety Program

    Using Safety and Health Consultants
    Need for a Consultant
    Conducting the Interview
    Scope of Work
    Final Hiring Steps

    Safety and Health Training
    When to Train
    Training New Hires
    Training Supervisors
    Training Employees
    Documenting Safety and Health Training
    After the Training
    Safety Talks
    Safety Talks and Meetings
    OSHA Training Requirements
    OSHA Training Guidelines
    Legal Aspect of Training
    OSHA Training Model
    Matching Training to Employees
    Identifying Employees at Risk
    Training Employees at Risk

    Analyzing Accident Data
    OSHA Recordkeeping
    Company Records
    Important Ancillary Data Needed for More Complete Analysis
    Statistical Analysis for Comparisons
    Workers’ Compensation
    Cost of Accidents

    Prevention and OSHA Regulations
    Federal Laws.309
    Regulation Process
    Federal Register
    The Purpose of OSHA
    Code of Federal Regulations
    CFR Numbering System
    OSHA Standards Covered
    Copies of the OSHA Standards
    Relief (Variance) from an OSHA Standard
    OSHAct Protects
    The Role of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)
    The Role of the Occupational Safety and Health Review Commission (OSHRC)
    Employers are Responsible for Workers’ Safety and Health
    Workers’ Rights
    Workers’ Responsibilities under the Law
    The Right Not to Be Discriminated Against
    The Right to Know
    Environmental Monitoring Results
    Personal Protective Clothing
    OSHA Inspections
    OSHA Receives a Complaint
    Types of Violations
    Challenging Citations, Penalties, and Other Enforcement Measures
    Workers Get the Results of an Inspection
    Determining Penalties
    State Programs
    Workers’ Training
    Occupational Injuries and Illnesses
    Medical and Exposure Records
    What to Do When OSHA Comes Knocking

    Health Hazard Prevention
    Back Injuries
    Bloodborne Pathogens
    Cold Stress
    Hazardous Chemicals
    Hazardous Waste
    Heat Stress
    Ionizing Radiation
    Noise-Induced Hearing Loss
    Nonionizing Radiation
    Workplace Stress

    Controls and Personal Protective Equipment
    Controlling Hazards
    Personal Protective Equipment
    Establishing a PPE Program
    Hazard Assessment
    Eye and Face Protection
    Head Protection
    Foot and Leg Protection
    Hand and Arm Protection
    Body Protection
    Hearing Protection
    Respiratory Protection

    Safety Hazards
    Abrasive Blasting (29 CFR 1910.94 and 1910.244)
    Abrasive Wheel Equipment/Grinders (29 CFR 1910.212, 1910.215, and 1910.243)
    Air Receivers (29 CFR 1910.169)
    Aisles and Passageways (29 CFR 1910.17, 1910.22, and 1910.176)
    Belt Sanding Machines (29 CFR 1910.213)
    Chains, Cables, Ropes, and Hooks (29 CFR 1910.179 and 1910.180)
    Compressors and Compressed Air (29 CFR 1910.242)
    Compressed Gas Cylinders (29 CFR 1910.101 and 1910.253)
    Compressed Gases (29 CFR 1910.101, 1910.102, 1910.103, 1910.104, 1910.106, and 1910.253)
    Confined Spaces (29 CFR 1910.146)
    Containers and Portable Tank Storage (29 CFR 1910.106)
    Control of Hazardous Energy Sources [Lockout/Tagout] (29 CFR 1910.147)
    Crane, Derrick, and Hoist Safety (29 CFR 1910.179, 1910.180, and 1910.181)
    Dip Tanks Containing Flammable or Combustible Liquid (29 CFR 1910.108)
    Dockboards (29 CFR 1910.30)
    Drinking Water (29 CFR 1910.141)
    Electrical (29 CFR 1910.303, 1910.304, 1910.305, 1910.331, and 1910.333)
    Elevated Surfaces (29 CFR 1910.23)
    Emergency Action Plans (29 CFR 1910.38)
    Exit Doors (29 CFR 1910.36)
    Exits and Exit Routes (29 CFR 1910.36)
    Explosives and Blasting Agents (29 CFR 1910.109)
    Fan Blades (29 CFR 1910.212)
    Fall Protection (29 CFR 1910.23 and 1910.66 Appendix I)
    Fire Protection (29 CFR 1910.157)
    Flammable and Combustible Liquids (29 CFR 1910.106)
    Flammable and Combustible Materials
    Floors [General Conditions] (29 CFR 1910.22 and 1920.23)
    Forklift Trucks [Powered Industrial Trucks] (29 CFR 1910.178)
    Fueling (29 CFR 1910.178, 1910.180, and 1910.181)
    Hand Tools (29 CFR 1910.242)
    Hoist and Auxiliary Equipment (29 CFR 1910.179)
    Housekeeping (29 CFR 1910.22)
    Hydraulic Power Tools (29 CFR 1910.217)
    Jacks (29 CFR 1910.244)
    Ladders, Fixed (29 CFR 1910.27)
    Ladders, Portable (29 CFR 1910.25 and 1910.26)
    Lunch Rooms (29 CFR 1910.141)
    Machine Guarding (29 CFR 1910.212 and 1910.219)
    Machinery, Fixed (29 CFR 1910.212)
    Material Handling (29 CFR 1910.176)
    Mechanical Power Presses (29 CFR 1910.217)
    Motor Vehicle Safety
    Pneumatic Tools (29 CFR 1910.243)
    Portable (Power Operated) Tools and Equipment (29 CFR 1910.243)
    Powder-Actuated Tools (29 CFR 1910.243)
    Powered Platforms for Building Maintenance (29 CFR 1910.66)
    Power Transmission Equipment Guarding (29 CFR 1910.219)
    Pressure Vessels (29 CFR 1910.106, 1910.216, and 1910.217)
    Railings (29 CFR 1910.23)
    Saws, Portable Circular (29 CFR 1910.243)
    Scaffolds (29 CFR 1910.28)
    Skylights (29 CFR 1910.23)
    Spray-Finishing Operations (29 CFR 1910.107)
    Stairs, Fixed Industrial (29 CFR 1910.23 and 1910.24)
    Storage (29 CFR 1910.176)
    Tanks, Open-Surface (29 CFR 1910.94)
    Tire Inflation
    Toeboards (29 CFR 1910.23)
    Toilets (29 CFR 1910.141)
    Transporting Employees and Materials
    Walking/Working Surfaces (29 CFR 1910.21 and 1910.22)
    Welding, Cutting, and Brazing (29 CFR 1910.251, 1910.252, 1910.253, 1910.254, and 1910.255)
    Woodworking Machinery (29 CFR 1910.213)
    Workplace Violence


    Appendix A: Written Safety and Health Program
    Appendix B: Accident Investigation Forms (Revised)
    Appendix C: Causal Analysis Worksheets
    Appendix D: OSHA Safety and Health Training Requirements
    Appendix E: OSHA Regional Offices and State Plan Offices
    Appendix F: Sample Glove Selection Charts
    Appendix G: Occupational Safety and Health Resources and Information Sources


    For 30 years Dr. Charles D. Reese has been involved with occupational safety and health as an educator, manager, or consultant. In Dr. Reese’s early beginnings in occupational safety and health, he held the position of industrial hygienist at the National Mine Health and Safety Academy. He later assumed the responsibility of manager for the nation’s occupational trauma research initiative at the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health’s (NIOSH) Division of Safety Research. Dr. Reese has had an integral part in trying to assure that workplace safety and health is provided for all those within the workplace. As the managing director for the Laborers’ Health and Safety Fund of North America, his responsibilities were aimed at protecting the 650,000 members of the laborers’ union in the United States and Canada.

    He has developed many occupational safety and health training programs, which run the gamut from radioactive waste remediation to confined space entry. Dr. Reese has written numerous articles, pamphlets, and books on related safety and health issues.

    Dr. Reese, Professor Emeritus, was a member of the graduate and undergraduate faculty at the University of Connecticut, where he taught courses on OSHA regulations, safety and health management, accident prevention techniques, industrial hygiene, ergonomics, and environmental trends and issues. As professor of environmental /occupational safety and health, he coordinated the bulk of the environmental, safety and health efforts at the University of Connecticut. He is called upon to consult with industry on safety and health issues and is often asked for expert consultation in legal cases.

    Dr. Reese also is the principal author of the:

    Handbook of OSHA Construction Safety and Health (Second Edition),
    Material Handling Systems: Designing for Safety and Health,
    Annotated Dictionary of Construction Safety and Health,
    Occupational Health and Safety Management: A Practical Approach (Second Edition),
    Office Building Safety and Health
    Accident/Incident Prevention Techniques (Second Edition),
    The Four Volume Set Entitled: Handbook of Safety and Health for the Service Industry:
    Volume 1: Industrial Safety and Health for Goods and Materials Services
    Volume 2: Industrial Safety and Health for Infrastructure Services
    Volume 3: Industrial Safety and Health for Administrative Services
    Volume 4: Industrial Safety and Health for People Oriented Services

    "… a valuable reference for anyone responsible for workplace safety … Everything any employer might need to create and administer a complete workplace safety program is here in one volume. …"