Achieving Biodiversity Protection in Megadiverse Countries: A Comparative Assessment of Australia and Brazil, 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Achieving Biodiversity Protection in Megadiverse Countries

A Comparative Assessment of Australia and Brazil, 1st Edition

Edited by Paul Martin, Márcia Dieguez Leuzinger, Solange Teles da Silva, Gabriel Leuzinger Coutinho


272 pages | 12 B/W Illus.

Purchasing Options:$ = USD
Hardback: 9780367265274
pub: 2020-04-02
SAVE ~$31.00
Available for pre-order. Item will ship after 2nd April 2020

FREE Standard Shipping!


This volume systematically analyses why legal doctrines for the protection of biodiversity are not sufficiently effective. It examples implementation in Australia and Brazil, two megadiverse countries with very differing legal and cultural traditions and natural environments.

Substantial effort goes into the development and interpretation of legal doctrines for the protection of biodiversity in national and international law. Despite this, biodiversity continues in steep decline. Nowhere is this more evident than in megadiverse countries, such as Australia and Brazil, who possess the greatest number and diversity of animals and plants on Earth. The book covers a wide range of topics, including farming, mining, marine environments, indigenous interests and governance. Achieving Biodiversity Protection in Megadiverse Countries highlights specific causes of underperformance in protecting diverse terrestrial and marine environments. It provides proposals for more effective implementation in these two jurisdictions, relevant to other megadiverse territories, and for biodiversity protection generally. Each chapter was written by teams of Australian and Brazilian authors, so that similar issues are considered across both jurisdictions, to provide both country-specific and generalisable insights.

Achieving Biodiversity Protection in Megadiverse Countries will be of great interest to students and scholars of environmental law and governance and biodiversity conservation, as well as policymakers, practitioners and NGOs working in these fields.

Table of Contents

Table of contents





Insufficient effectiveness

The need for objective diagnoses

The rationale for this book

Our gratitude


Chapter 1: The issues, methods and evidence


1.1 Introduction

1.2 Biodiversity governance in Brazil and Australia

1.2.1 Biodiversity governance in Australia

1.3.2 Biodiversity governance in Brazil

1.4 Initial investigation

1.5 Book structure


Chapter 2: Controlling the biodiversity impacts of agriculture


2.1 Introduction

2.2 The impact of agriculture

2.2.1 Expansion and habitat loss

2.2.2 Invasive species

2.2.3 Contamination

2.3 Financial constraints

2.4 Public programs

2.5 Water, climate and biodiversity

2.6 Socio-ecological issues

2.7 Overview


Chapter 3: Biodiversity risk management in mining


3.1 Introduction

3.2 Governance frameworks

3.3 Mine approval in Australia

3.3.1 The Bulga case

3.3.2 Adani Carmichael case

3.4 Mine disasters in Brazil

3.5 Conclusions and implications


Chapter 4: Creating and managing marine protected areas


4.1 Introduction

4.2 Marine biodiversity conservation and international agreements

4.3 Australia's marine governance

4.4 Brazil's marine governance

4.5 Implementing Brazil's protected areas

4.6 Implementing Australia's protected areas

4.7 Conclusions


Chapter 5: Social justice and the management of protected areas


5.1 Introduction

5.2 Brazillian Indigenous and Traditional people’s stewardship

5.2.1 The Rio de Janeiro Law 2.393/1995

5.2.2 Serra do Mar State Park

5.2.3 Contributions to conservation

5.3 Co-management in Australia

5.3.1 Native title and statuory rights

5.3.2 Uluru Kata Tjuta National Park Local laws Evaluation

5.4 Comparing Australia and Brazil

5.5 Conclusions


Chapter 6: Low impact recreational use and biodiversity protection


6.1 Introduction

6.2 Surfing reserves and conservation innovation

6.3 Surfing reserves and biodiversity

6.4 Australian surfing reserves

6.5 Brazilian surfing reserves

6.6 Perspectives on surfing reserves

6.7 Conclusions


Chapter 7: Partnered governance of biodiversity


7.1 Introduction

7.2 Cotton case studies

7.3.1 Australia

7.3.2 Brazil

7.4 Sugar case studies

7.4.1 Australia

7.4.2 Brazil

7.5 Beef case studies

7.5.1 Australia

7.5.2 Brazil

7.6 Dairy case studies

7.6.1 Australia

7.6.2 Brazi

7.7 Receptiveness to partnered arrangements

7.8 Conclusions


Chapter 8: Biodiversity intelligence from satellites


8.1 Introduction

8.2 The need for low-cost precision

8.3 Satellites technologies

8.4 Murray-Darling Basin case

8.5 Monitoring habitat loss

8.5.1 Mato Grosso land clearing

8.5.2 Queensland land clearing

8.6 Discussion and conclusion


Chapter 9: The challenge of using drones


9.1 Introduction

9.2 Drone technology evolution

9.3 Expanding uses

9.4 Incremental adoption and learning

9.5 Governance challenges

9.5.1 Human impact risk

9.5.2 Social interests

9.5.3 Lethal drones

9.5.4 Biodiversity impacts

9.5.5 Intentional damage

9.5.6 Drones and data

9.6 Conclusion


Chapter 10: Funding biodiversity conservation


10.1 Introduction

10.2 Resource limitations

10.3 The funding gaps

10.4 Funding strategies

10.4.1 Brazil

10.4.2 Australia

10.4.3 Pretected areas funding

10.5 Conclusions


Chapter 11: Governing the governance system


11.1 Introduction

11.2 Key terms

11.3 Meta-governance

11.4 The governance challenges

11.5 Biodiversity strategies

11.6 Australia's meta-governance

11.7 Brazil's meta-governance

11.8 Conclusions


Chapter 12: Recommendations


12.1 Introduction

12.2 Politics and regression

12.3 Undermining existing laws

12.4 Architectures, not just instruments

12.5 Weak accountability and continuous improvement

12.6 Citizen participation arrangements need improvement

12.7 Meta-governance is inadequate

12.8 Looking to the future


Appendix A: Legislation list

A.1 Australian laws

A.2 Brazilian laws

A.2.1 Federal laws

A.2.2 Federal (Presidential) Decrees

A.2.3 Other

Appendix B: International material

Appendix C: Cases

About the Editors

Prof. Paul Martin is the Director of the Australian Centre for Agriculture and Law at the University of New England in Australia, and a member of the Research Committee of the IUCN Academy of Environmental Law. He has conducted extensive research on the implementation of biodiiversity protection a number of countries.

Prof. Marcia Dieguez Leunziger is an Environmental Law Professor at Brasilia University Centre - UniCEUB, and a State Attorney for Parana. She has undergraduate, masters and doctoral degrees in Sustainable Development from Brasilia University – UnB and leads the Environmental Law and Sustainable Development Research Group at UniCEUB.

Prof. Solange Da Silva is a Law Professor at Mackenzie Presbyterian University. She graduated in Law at Sao Paulo University and has a PhD in Environmental Law at Paris I - Pantheon Sorbonne University. She has a CNPq Research Productivity Fellowship in Brazil and is the Leader of the Research Group on Law and Sustainable Development. She is actively involved in the IUCN Academy of Environmental Law.

Prof. Gabriel Coutinho is an electrical engineer with an MBA in Project Management from the Fundação Getúlio Vargas, and an MSc in Sustainability Policy and Management from the University of Brasília (UnB). He is currently a PhD student at UnB's Center for Sustainable Development, and is a coordinator of the environmental law and sustainable development research group at UniCEUB.

About the Series

Routledge Studies in Biodiversity Politics and Management

Learn more…

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
LAW / Environmental
LAW / Natural Law
LAW / Natural Resources
NATURE / General
NATURE / Ecology
NATURE / Environmental Conservation & Protection
NATURE / Natural Resources
POLITICAL SCIENCE / Public Policy / Environmental Policy
SCIENCE / Environmental Science