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Activated Carbon Adsorption




ISBN 9780824753443
Published May 24, 2005 by CRC Press
520 Pages - 225 B/W Illustrations

 
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Book Description

High surface area, a microporous structure, and a high degree of surface reactivity make activated carbons versatile adsorbents, particularly effective in the adsorption of organic and inorganic pollutants from aqueous solutions. Activated Carbon Adsorption introduces the parameters and mechanisms involved in the activated carbon adsorption of organic and inorganic compounds. This text brings together the most significant research on surface structure and processes, adsorption theories and isotherm equations, and applications from the latest literature on carbon adsorption.

The book clearly explains the surface-related interactions of activated carbons, their energetics, and the applicability of adsorption isotherm equations and their deviation from adsorption data. It then explores numerous applications in a wide range of areas, such as nuclear technology, vacuum technology, food technology, pharmaceuticals and medicine, gas storage, oil refining, and environmental remediation. Topics include: oils and fats, molecular sieves, refining of liquid fuels, pesticides, dyes, drugs, and toxins. Three chapters are dedicated to environmental applications, including the adsorption of halogenated organic compounds and the removal of hazardous gases and vapors, organo-sulphur compounds, and other inorganic compounds from wastewater and groundwater.

Activated Carbon Adsorption presents a complete survey of the growing number of state-of-the-art applications supported by a compilation of the latest perspectives in research concerning carbon surfaces and their adsorption processes from aqueous solutions. Its unified approach promotes further research towards improving and developing newer activated carbon adsorbents and processes for the efficient removal of pollutants from drinking water and industrial effluents.

Table of Contents

Preface
Introduction
Activated Carbon and Its Surface Structure
Crystalline Structure of Activated Carbons
Porous Structure of Activated Carbons
Chemical Structure of the Carbon Surface
Carbon-oxygen Surface Groups and Their Characterization
Influence of Carbon-Oxygen Surface Groups on Surface Characteristics of Carbons
Active Sites on Carbon Surfaces
Modification of Activated Carbon Surface
Adsorption Energetics, Models, and Isotherm Equations
Adsorption on a Solid Surface
Adsorption Equilibrium
Energetics of Adsorption
Classification of Adsorption Isotherms
Adsorption Isotherm Equations and their Applicability to Adsorption Data
Adsorption Hysteresis
Activated Carbon Adsorption from Solutions
Types of Adsorption from Solution Phase
Types of Adsorption Isotherms
Factors Influencing Adsorption from Binary Solutions
Determination of Individual Adsorption Isotherms from Composite Isotherms
Thickness of the Adsorbed Layer
Chemisorption from Binary Solutions
Traube’s Rule
Carbon Molecular Sieves
Preparation of Carbon Molecular Sieves
Characterization of Carbon Molecular Sieves
Adsorption by Carbon Molecular Sieves
Activated Carbon Adsorption Applications
Liquid Phase Applications
Gas Phase Applications
Activated Carbon Adsorption in Nuclear Technology
Activated Carbon Adsorption in Vacuum Technology
Medicinal Applications of Activated Carbon Adsorption
Activated Carbon Adsorption of Gas Storage
Activated Carbon Adsorption and the Environment: Removal of Inorganics from Wastewater
Activated Carbon Adsorption of Inorganics from Aqueous Phase (General)
Activated Carbon Adsorption of Copper
Activated Carbon Adsorption of Chromium
Activated Carbon Adsorption of Mercury
Activated Carbon Adsorption of Cadmium from Aqueous Solutions
Activated Carbon Adsorption of Cobalt
Activated Carbon Adsorption of Nickel
Removal of Lead from Water
Adsorptive Removal of Zinc
Activated Carbon Adsorption of Arsenic
Adsorptive Separation of Cations in Trace Amounts from Aqueous Solutions
Mechanism of Metal Ion Adsorption by Activated Carbons
Activated Carbon Adsorption and the Environment: Adsorptive Removal of Organic Compounds
Activated Carbon Adsorption of Halogenated Organic Compounds
Activated Carbon Adsorption of Natural Organic Matter (NOM)
Activated Carbon Adsorption of Phenolic Compounds
Adsorption of Nitro and Amino Compounds
Adsorption of Pesticides
Adsorption of Dyes
Activated Carbon Adsorption of Drugs and Toxins
Adsorption of Miscellaneous Organic Compounds
Mechanism of Adsorption of Organics by Activated Carbons
Activated Carbon Adsorption and Environment: Removal of Hazardous Gases and Vapors
Removal of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) at Low Concentrations
Removal of Oxides of Nitrogen from Flue Gases
Removal of Sulphur Dioxide from Flue Gases
Evaporated Loss Control Devices
Protection of upper Respiratory Tract in Hazardous Environment
Activated Carbon Adsorption of Mercury vapors
Removal of Organic Sulphur Compounds
Adsorptive Removal of Miscellaneous Vapors and Gases  
Author Index
Subject Index

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Author(s)

Biography

Roop Chand Bansal, Meenakshi Goyal

Reviews

“As a reference and teaching volume the value of this book is incalculable and it is likely to become a standard work on the bookshelves of all those in the many fields in which activated carbon plays a key role.”
Chromatographia
“This book is both very informative and fairly comprehensive on the subject of adsorption by activated carbon. Written for the chemist and/or engineer, it serves as broad and well documented study of activated carbon. The organization of the book makes it an excellent resource for individuals who are involved with the scientific and engineering study of activated carbons, or with one or more of their various applications. … The book is rich in references, and the authors have the technical maturity to offer excellent critical reviews of the research dealing with the characterization and application of activated carbons for adsorption. … The book does fulfill the authors’ desire to offer the necessary background on the adsorption of activated carbon and serve as a guide and survey of the numerous studies of activated carbon. Complete with important references, it does an excellent job of providing the latest perspectives in research concerning carbon surfaces and their adsorption processes and, as such, should be a valuable resource for those individuals involved with the study and application of activated carbon, including surface scientists, chemists, engineers, and technologists.”
—Douglas K. Ludlow, University of Missouri, in Journal of the American Chemical Society, 2006
“… provides a thorough and well documented discussion of activated carbon surface chemistry. The book includes references spanning more than a century and frames discussion of the literature in an appropriate historical context. … The book is generally well organized with a descriptive table of contents and both a subject and an author index. … This book is most appropriate for graduate students and faculty active in carbon adsorption research, although it may also make an appropriate textbook for graduate students with previous knowledge on sorption phenomena. It is a useful reference tool as it compiles a vast amount of scattered information into one book. … provide relevant photos, equations, and tables in each chapter. Whether you are an aspiring scientist, or a seasoned researcher, the depth and breadth of information in this book make it a must read.”
—Timothy O. Jobe, New Mexico State University, in Jom On-Line, February 26, 2007