Adaptive Optics for Biological Imaging: 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Adaptive Optics for Biological Imaging

1st Edition

Edited by Joel A Kubby

CRC Press

388 pages | 242 B/W Illus.

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pub: 2013-04-26
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Adaptive Optics for Biological Imaging brings together groundbreaking research on the use of adaptive optics for biological imaging. The book builds on prior work in astronomy and vision science. Featuring contributions by leaders in this emerging field, it takes an interdisciplinary approach that makes the subject accessible to nonspecialists who want to use adaptive optics techniques in their own work in biology and bioengineering.

Organized into three parts, the book covers principles, methods, and applications of adaptive optics for biological imaging, providing the reader with the following benefits:

  • Gives a general overview of applied optics, including definitions and vocabulary, to lay a foundation for clearer communication across disciplines
  • Explains what kinds of optical aberrations arise in imaging through various biological tissues, and what technology can be used to correct for these aberrations
  • Explores research done with a variety of biological samples and imaging instruments, including wide-field, confocal, and two-photon microscopes
  • Discusses both indirect wavefront sensing, which uses an iterative approach, and direct wavefront sensing, which uses a parallel approach

Since the sample is an integral part of the optical system in biological imaging, the field will benefit from participation by biologists and biomedical researchers with expertise in applied optics. This book helps lower the barriers to entry for these researchers. It also guides readers in selecting the approach that works best for their own applications.


"Overall, this is an excellent book, which achieves its stated primary goal. … Without reservations, this is a book I would recommend to anyone who wishes to start learning about the principles and potential of AO in this field."

—Biomedical Engineering OnLine

"The strength of the book is the delicate balance of theory and instrumentation and applications. … Another example of the comprehensive nature of the chapters is a critical discussion of the adaptive optical elements. … Adaptive Optics for Biological Imaging is a good place to start to understand the problem (aberrations induced by the instrument, the objective, and the specimen and its preparation and mounting in the microscope), and the various instrumental and computational approaches to approach a solution (minimize the significant aberrations)."

—Barry R. Masters, Journal of Biomedical Optics, Volume 18, July 2013

"This book is a broad and comprehensive introduction to the use of adaptive optics (AO) in biological microscopy. It provides a much-needed entrée to the field and includes not only the basics and general principles but also discussion of practical implementations and key application areas."

—From the Foreword by Professor Austin Roorda, University of California at Berkeley, and Professor Claire Max, University of California at Santa Cruz

Table of Contents


Principles of Wave Optics

Donald T. Gavel

Principles of Geometric Optics

Joel Kubby

Theory of Image Formation

Michael Schwertner


Aberrations and Benefit of Their Correction in Confocal Microscopy

Michael Schwertner

Specimen-Induced Geometrical Distortions

Michael Schwertner

Simulation of Aberrations

Michael Schwertner

Overview of Adaptive Optics in Biological Imaging

Elijah Y.S. Yew and Peter T.C. So

Wavefront Correctors

Joel Kubby

Adaptive Optics System Alignment and Assembly

Diana C. Chen

Applications: Indirect Wavefront Sensing

Sensorless Adaptive Optics for Microscopy

Martin J. Booth and Alexander Jesacher

Implementation of Adaptive Optics in Nonlinear Microscopy for Biological Samples Using Optimization Algorithms

John M. Girkin

AO Two-Photon Fluorescence Microscopy Using Stochastic Parallel Descent Algorithm with Zernike Polynomial Basis

Yaopeng Zhou

Pupil-Segmentation-Based Adaptive Optics for Microscopy

Na Ji and Eric Betzig

Applications: Direct Wavefront Sensing

Coherence-Gated Wavefront Sensing

Jonas Binding and Markus Rückel

Adaptive Optics in Wide-Field Microscopy

Peter Kner, Zvi Kam, David A. Agard, and John Sedat

Biological Imaging and Adaptive Optics in Microscopy

Elijah Y.S. Yew, Jae Won Cha, Jerome Ballesta, and Peter T.C. So

Adaptive Optical Microscopy Using Direct Wavefront Measurements

Oscar Azucena, Xiaodong Tao, and Joel Kubby


About the Editor


Joel Kubby is the Department Chair of Electrical Engineering in the Baskin School of Engineering at the University of California at Santa Cruz. His research is in the area of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) with applications in optics, fluidics, and BioMEMS. Before joining the University of California at Santa Cruz in 2005, he was an area manager with the Wilson Center for Research and Technology and a member of technical staff in the Xerox Research Center Webster in Rochester, New York (1987–2005). Prior to Xerox, he was at the Bell Telephone Laboratories in Murray Hill, New Jersey, working in the area of scanning tunneling microscopy.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
SCIENCE / Physics