This book presents results from a four-year project addressing the central question: What factors, challenges, and contexts contribute to and constrain literacy achievement among at-risk adolescent learners with culturally diverse backgrounds? Researchers consider the importance of several, interrelated factors that support the development of adolescents’ literacies in multilingual contexts: support from educators, community groups, families, and peers; recognition of the multi-faceted complexity of literacy through multiple, complementary methods of research and assessment; approaches to pedagogy that engage learners’ zones of proximal development in humanistic and purposeful ways; and promoting students’ vocabulary knowledge, strategies for reading, writing, and learning, and orientations to engaging with epistemic purposes of literacy critically, through multiple media, and with self-confidence.
1. Purpose and Approach Alister Cumming and Esther Geva 2. Tutoring Adolescents in Literacy: A Thematic Synthesis of Published Research Robert Kohls and Jennifer Shade Wilson 3. Pathways to Education and its Accomplishments Norman Rowen 4. Students and Their Social Networks for Literacy Jennifer Shade Wilson 5. Reading Practices and Achievement Seung Won Jun and Yuko Watanabe 6. Writing Practices and Achievement Mohammed Al-Alawi and Robert Kohls 7. Issues in Socialization, Literacy Learning, and Educational Processes Alister Cumming, Mohammed Al-Alawi, and Yuko Watanabe 8. Bridging Lexical Knowledge and Literacy Daphne Meng-Ying Lin, Gloria Ramirez, Jennifer Shade Wilson, and Esther Geva 9. Tutoring in the Zone of Proximal Development Ibtissem Knouzi 10. Summary and Recommendations Alister Cumming and Esther Geva Appendices: Case Studies of Seven Focal Students A. Angel: A Resistant, Multilingual Learner Case Study by Yuko Watanabe B. Hassan: An Independent Learner with Future Goals Case Study by Mohammed Al-Alawi C. Jacob: An Introverted Learner, Needing English Vocabulary Case Study by Seung Won Jun D. K-9: A Creative Student Pursuing Vocational Education Case Study by Robert Kohls E. MMFresh: A Goal-Oriented, Multilingual Student Case Study by Mario E. López-Gopar F. Ning: A Recent Immigrant Student Case Study by Jennifer Shade Wilson G. Peter: An Affable, Distracted Lad Case Study by Gloria Ramirez H. Score Summaries for 7 Case Study Students on 5 Assessments