Despite being regarded as the most common toxicological target in the endocrine system, the adrenal gland has often been neglected in regulatory testing. Adrenal Toxicology addresses the increased interest in adrenocortical toxicology and the need for a resource that makes techniques available to examine adrenal endocrine disruption.
Examining current techniques and the latest advancements, Adrenal Toxicology reviews the endocrinology, pharmacology, pathology and toxicology of the adrenal gland. This text provides information on the range of drugs and chemicals that affect adrenocortical function and suggests standardized approaches for in vivo and in vitro assessment. This volume also presents recent developments in the molecular mechanisms of toxicity to the adrenal cortex and medulla, and considers environmental adrenal endocrine disruption in sentinel species.
- reflects the major developments made over the past decade
- focuses on the latest research techniques, including their uses and limitations
- provides an integrated strategy for adrenal toxicology evaluation
- identifies knowledge and data gaps, providing impetus for regulatory consideration
Table of Contents
PART I - Introduction to adrenal toxicology. 1. Adrenal toxicology: Molecular targets, endocrine mechanisms, hormonal interactions, assessment models and species differences in toxicity. PART II - Hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal pathophysiology, endocrinology and pharmacology. 2. An overview of human adrenal dysfunction. 3. The hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis: Endocrinology, pharmacology, pathophysiology and developmental effects. PART III - Adrenal toxicology in vivo and in vitro. 4. The adrenal medulla as a target organ in toxicologic studies of rats and mice. 5. Adrenal gland background pathology of primates in toxicological studies. 6. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal toxicity in dogs. 7. Adrenocortical toxicology in vitro: Assessment of steroidogenic enzyme expression and steroid production in H295R cells. 8. Comparisons of adrenocortical cell lines as in vitro test systems. 9. Glucocorticoid pharmacotoxicological interactions and modulation of toxicity. PART IV - Adrenal dysfunction in environmental sentinel species. 10. Adrenocortical toxicology in fishes. 11. Adrenocortical toxicology in birds: Environmental contaminants and the avian response to stress.
PHILIP W. HARVEY received his honors degree and doctorate (endocrine, reproductive/ developmental, and neurobehavioral toxicology) from the University of Keele, UK, and has worked in general industrial/pharmaceutical toxicology for over 20 years. He has particular interests in endocrine toxicology (the adrenal, prolactin and hormonal carcinogenesis, estrogenic chemicals and human health) and devised and edited the books The Adrenal in Toxicology: Target Organ and Modulator of Toxicity (1996) and Endocrine and Hormonal Toxicology (1999). He has served on various journal editorial boards and is currently the Editor-in-Chief of Journal of Applied Toxicology.
DAVID J. EVERETT received his honors degree in biological sciences from the University of Sussex, UK, and has been actively involved in toxicological safety assessment of novel pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals and industrial chemicals for more than 30 years. His involvement in carcinogenicity has led to a particular interest for him in hormonal carcinogenesis. He is a Fellow of the Institute of Biology.
CHRISTOPHER J. SPRINGALL is a toxicological pathologist who received his original medical degree from Liverpool University, UK, and has been actively involved in toxicology and drug development for over 25 years. He has worked with a very wide range of candidate drugs, including a substantial number which have an impact on endocrine systems.