1st Edition

Advanced Experimental Unsaturated Soil Mechanics Proceedings of the International Symposium on Advanced Experimental Unsaturated Soil Mechanics, Trento, Italy, 27-29 June 2005

Edited By Alessandro Tarantino, E. Romero, Y.J. Cui Copyright 2005
    580 Pages
    by CRC Press

    The field of experimental unsaturated soil mechanics has grown considerably over the last decade. In the laboratory and in the field, innovative techniques have been introduced into mechanical, hydraulic, and geo-environmental testing. Normally, this information is widely dispersed throughout journals and conference proceedings and it is often difficult to identify suitable equipment and instrumentation for research or professional purposes. In this volume, however, the authors bring together the latest research in laboratory and field testing techniques, and the equipment employed, and examine the current state-of-the-art in a forum devoted solely to experimental unsaturated soil mechanics. The papers published in the proceedings were peer-reviewed by internationally-recognized researchers. The topics tackled by the papers include suction measurement, suction control, mechanical and hydraulic laboratory testing, geo-environmental testing, and field-testing.

    Table of Contents

    Preface xi

    Acknowledgements xiii

    Organisation xv

    Suction measurement

    Lessons learnt from suction monitoring during centrifuge modeling 3

    C.F. Chiu, Y.J. Cui, P. Delage, E. Haza & E. De Laure

    Pressure pulse technique for measuring diffused air volume 9

    C.A. Lawrence, W.N. Houston, A.M. Harraz & S.L. Houston

    A new soil-water characteristic curve device 15

    J.M. Padilla, Y.Y. Perera, W.N. Houston & D.G. Fredlund

    Soil suction measurement using the Xeritron Sensor in two different types of infiltration tests

    on a swelling soil 23

    G.A. Siemens & J.A. Blatz

    Swelling and suction in clay minerals 27

    V.K.S. Thakur & D.N. Singh

    The effect of structure on the water retention of soil tested using different methods of suction

    measurement 33

    S.C. Walker, D. Gallipoli & D.G. Toll

    Suction control

    Controlled suction oedometric tests: analysis of some experimental aspects 43

    C. Airò Farulla & A. Ferrari

    Behavior upon drying-wetting paths of Maghnia Bentonite (west of Algeria) 49

    N. Abou-Bekr, F.M. Derfouf & A. Bekkouche

    An investigation into hydro-mechanical behavior of an expansive soil using axis-translation and

    vapor equilibrium techniques 53

    S.S. Agus & T. Schanz

    Combining different controlled-suction techniques to study expansive clays 61

    C. Hoffmann, E. Romero & E.E. Alonso

    On the suction control techniques in studying the THM behavior of unsaturated soils 69

    S. Taïbi, M.S. Ghembaza & J.M. Fleureau

    Determination of water retention curves of two bentonites at high temperature 77

    M.V. Villar, P.L. Martín & A. Lloret


    Advanced Experimental Unsaturated Soil Mechanics – Tarantino, Romero & Cui (eds)

    © 2005 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 0 415 38337 4

    Mechanical testing in unsaturated soils

    A direct shear box improved with the osmotic technique 85

    M. Boso, A. Tarantino & L. Mongiovì

    Volume change measurement of partially saturated rockfill in triaxial tests 93

    C. Chávez, E. Romero & E.E. Alonso

    Advancement in oedometer testing of unsaturated soils 99

    M. El-Sohby, O. Mazen & M. Aboushook

    A tensile strength apparatus for cohesionless soils 105

    N. Lu, B. Wu & C.P. Tan

    Direct shear testing of interfaces in unsaturated soil 111

    G.A. Miller & T.B. Hamid

    Measuring lateral pressures during suction-controlled one-dimensional consolidation 117

    E.E. Slatter, S.G. Fityus & D.W. Smith

    Determination of the shear strength of unsaturated soils using the modified ring shear apparatus 125

    S.K. Vanapalli, V.K. Garga & J.Á. Infante Sedano

    Experimental study of flowslide on reconstituted samples of pyroclastic soils: soil

    characterization and testing devices 131

    M.C. Zingariello, L. Pagano & C. Mancuso

    Mechanical behaviour of unsaturated soils

    Wetting paths upon shearing: experimental evidence and comparative analysis of two volcanic

    soils in the area of Napoli and Roma 141

    M. Cecconi, A. Evangelista, M.V. Nicotera, V. Pane, E. Cattoni & A. Scotto di Santolo

    Seasonal variation of a subgrade soil resilient modulus in southern Brazil 149

    J.A. Ceratti, W.Y.Y. Gehling & W.P. Núñez

    Wetting and anisotropic consolidation behaviour of an expansive clay 157

    R. Chen & C.W.W. Ng

    Swell and shrink tests in modified oedometer apparatuses 163

    M. Dobrowolsky & C. Vrettos

    A study of the shear strength of two unsaturated colluvium soils 169

    C. Feuerharmel, A.V.D. Bica, W.Y.Y. Gehling & J.A. Flores

    Direct shear and compression behaviors for an unsaturated compacted soil with water

    content and matric suction measurement 177

    D. Hormdee, H. Ochiai & N. Yasufuku

    Investigations on the unsaturated stress-strain behaviour and on the SWCC of Hostun Sand

    in a double-walled triaxial cell 185

    C. Lauer & J. Engel

    Analysis of the deformability of compacted tropical residual soils 193

    G.S.S. Martínez, W.Y.Y. Gehling & A.M.M. Castaneda

    Stiffness of unsaturated compacted clayey soils at very small strains 199

    C.E. Mendoza, J.E. Colmenares & V.E. Merchán

    Experimental and modeling of unsaturated soil behavior under stress path tests 205

    S.A. Mofiz, D.C. Sarker & M.R. Taha


    Stresses and conjugate strain-increments in plotting experimental data for unsaturated soils 211

    E.J. Murray & V. Sivakumar

    Influence of matric suction on the shear strength of a compacted Kaolonite under

    unconfined conditions: Experimental results (Part 1) 215

    J.A. Pineda & J.E. Colmenares

    Influence of matric suction on the shear strength of compacted Kaolin soil under

    unconfined conditions: Shear strength prediction (Part 2) 221

    J.A. Pineda & J.E. Colmenares

    Stress-strain behavior of an unsaturated residual soil from gneiss 227

    R.M. Reis & O.M. Vilar

    Experimental study of the effect of cyclic suction loading on shear behavior of collapsible soils 235

    K.A. Shemsu, S. Kiyama, S. Aoyama & A. Kobayashi

    Influence of sample preparation technique on the stress-strain behaviour of unsaturated soils 243

    R. Sivakumar, R. Thom, V. Sivakumar & D. Hughes

    An elastoplastic hydro-mechanical model for unsaturated compacted soils 249

    D.A. Sun & D.C. Sheng

    Seismic compression behaviour of non-plastic silty sands 257

    D.H. Whang, M.S. Moyneur, P. Duku & J.P. Stewart

    An empirical relationship for evaluating collapsible settlements of volcanic ash sandy soil 265

    N. Yasufuku, H. Ochiai & D. Hormdee

    A direct testing method for the tensile strength of compacted clays 273

    R.M. Zeh & K.J. Witt

    Hydraulic testing in unsaturated soils

    Unsaturated soil diffusivity measurements 281

    R. Bulut, C.P. Aubeny & R.L. Lytton

    Quasi-steady centrifuge method for unsaturated hydraulic characterization 287

    M.C. Caputo & J.R. Nimmo

    Numerical modeling of constant flow method for measuring unsaturated hydrologic properties 291

    W.J. Likos, N. Lu & A. Wayllace

    The centrifuge permeameter for unsaturated soils (CPUS) 299

    J.S. McCartney & J.G. Zornberg

    Experimental hydraulic measurements in an unsaturated swelling soil using the dual-energy

    gamma-ray technique 305

    S. Rolland, F. Masrouri, D. Stemmelen & C. Moyne

    Hydraulic behaviour of unsaturated soils

    Establishment of new tropical soils differentiation factors considering suction and soil genesis 311

    F.A.R. Araújo, R.G. Carvalho & E. Vertamatti

    Assessment of Fredlund & Xing’s soil-water characteristic equation for tropical soils 319

    F.A.R. Araújo, R.G. Carvalho & E. Vertamatti


    An experimental evaluation of unsaturated hydraulic conductivity functions for a

    quasi-saturated compacted soil 325

    K.V. Bicalho, D. Znidarcic & H.Y. Ko

    Soil-water characteristics and volume change behavior of an artificially cemented expansive clay 331

    H. Bilsel & S,. Öncü

    Some remarks on physicoempirical models for the prediction of the soil water retention curve 337

    M. Cecconi, V. Pane & S. Vecchietti

    Determination of the soil-water characteristic curve of undisturbed colluvium soils 345

    C. Feuerharmel, W.Y.Y. Gehling & A.V.D. Bica

    Use of soil-water characteristics curve in determination of stability of embankments during

    drying and wetting processes 351

    C.P.K. Gallage, E.F. Garcia, A. Peiris, T. Uchimura & H. Ochiai

    A model to predict the soil water characteristics of sand mixtures 359

    E. Imre, K. Havrán, J. Lörincz, K. Rajkai, T. Firgi & G. Telekes

    Evaluation of air permeability of unsaturated sandy soils 369

    K. Kamiya, R.T. Bakrie & Y. Honjo

    Evaluation of moisture-suction characteristics of a lateritic soil submitted to infiltration by

    caustic liqueur 377

    M.P.H. Moncada, T.M.P. De Campos, F.S. Antunes & A.V.F.A Bertolino

    Gas permeability evolution of a sand/bentonite during controlled-suction paths 385

    E. Romero, I. García & J. Knobelsdorf

    Water retention curves of lime stabilised soil 391

    G. Russo

    Investigating water retention characteristics upon wetting paths using water-undrained

    compression tests 397

    S. Tombolato, A. Tarantino & L. Mongiovì

    Estimation of the soil-water characteristic curve of coarse-grained soils using one point

    measurement and simple properties 401

    S.K. Vanapalli & M.C. Catana

    Microstructure investigation

    Compressibility and fabric of an unsaturated compacted swelling soil 411

    O. Cuisinier & F. Masrouri

    Influence of moisture content on porosity features of Red clay 419

    L.W. Kong, A.G. Guo, Y.W. Zhao & Y.Y. Liu

    Chemical and mineralogical properties of Residual tropical soils and their relationships

    with selected geotechnical properties 425

    G.S.S. Martínez, J.A.A. Flores & J.B. Queiroz de Carvalho

    Techniques of sample preparation of artificial cemented highly collapsible soil 431

    G.M. Medero, F. Schnaid, W.Y.Y. Gehling & S.J. Wheeler

    Microstructure of clay-sand mixtures at different hydration states 437

    R. Viola, M. Tuller, D. Or & J. Drasdis


    Drying induced alteration to the microstructure of a tropical soil 443

    G. Zhang, J.T. Germaine & A.J. Whittle

    Geo-environmental testing

    Temperature effects on the water content-suction relation of two soils 451

    A.P.L. Duarte, T.M.P. de Campos, J.T. Araruna Jr & P. Rocha-Filho

    On the retention properties of a polluted sand-silt mixture 459

    M. Manassero, G. Musso, C. Rabozzi & L. Ribotta

    Image analysis to determine the dispersion coefficient and dispersivity in capillary

    and saturated zone 467

    K. Inoue, K. Inoue, T. Tanaka & A. Kobayashi

    An experimental evidence in desiccation cracking in sandy silt 475

    H. Péron, L. Laloui & T. Hueckel

    Thermo-hydro-mechanical tests using vapor and liquid transfer on a clay based mixture 483

    E. Romero & X.L. Li

    Assessment of swell-shrinkage behavior of compacted sedimentary residual soil for

    potential use in landfill liner 489

    M.R. Taha, M.H. Kabir & R.C. Omar

    Field measurement and monitoring in field applications

    Laboratory versus field values of unsaturated soil diffusivity 495

    C.P. Aubeny, R. Bulut & R.L. Lytton

    Further tests on the fissuring of clay fill at the thorngumbald flood embankment 501

    M.R. Dyer

    In situ testing of unsaturated organic soils 505

    K. Garbulewski, Z. Bereda, Z. Chaci´nski, S. Pisarczyk & P. Popielski

    Field monitoring of matric potential and soil water content in the chalk unsaturated zone 511

    A.M. Ireson, H.S. Wheater, A.P. Butler, J. Finch, J.D. Cooper, R.G. Wyatt & E.J. Hewitt

    The use of the ground penetrating radar, GPR, as a non intrusive method to

    measuring soil water content 519

    S.L. Machado, M.A.B. Botelho, N.S. Amparo & T.C. Dourado

    Instrumentation and matric soil suction measurement in a decomposed granite soil slope 527

    S.A. Mofiz, D.C. Sarker, Sobhan, Rahman, M.R. Awall, M.R. Taha & M.K. Hossain

    Monitoring matric suction profiles in partially saturated pyroclastic topsoil slopes 533

    A. Scotto di Santolo, M.V. Nicotera & A. Evangelista

    Numerical modelling of soil suction measurements in pyroclastic soils 541

    G. Sorbino

    First results of a monitoring experiment for the analysis of rainfall induced landslides 549

    A. Thielen & S.M. Springman

    Evaluation of evapotranspiration from alternative landfill covers at the Rocky Mountain Arsena 555

    J.G. Zornberg & J.S. McCartney

    Author Index 563



    A. Tarantino, Università degli Studi di Trento, Trento, Italy

    E. Romero, Università degli Studi di Trento, Trento, Italy, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Barcelona, Spain

    Y.J. Cui, Ecole Nationale des Ponts et Chaussées, Paris, France