Advanced Thermodynamics Engineering, Second Edition: 2nd Edition (Hardback) book cover

Advanced Thermodynamics Engineering, Second Edition

By Kalyan Annamalai, Ishwar K. Puri, Milind A. Jog

© 2011 – CRC Press

1,142 pages | 294 B/W Illus.

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Advanced Thermodynamics Engineering, Second Edition is designed for readers who need to understand and apply the engineering physics of thermodynamic concepts. It employs a self-teaching format that reinforces presentation of critical concepts, mathematical relationships, and equations with concrete physical examples and explanations of applications—to help readers apply principles to their own real-world problems.

Less Mathematical/Theoretical Derivations—More Focus on Practical Application

Because both students and professionals must grasp theory almost immediately in this ever-changing electronic era, this book—now completely in decimal outline format—uses a phenomenological approach to problems, making advanced concepts easier to understand. After a decade teaching advanced thermodynamics, the authors infuse their own style and tailor content based on their observations as professional engineers, as well as feedback from their students. Condensing more esoteric material to focus on practical uses for this continuously evolving area of science, this book is filled with revised problems and extensive tables on thermodynamic properties and other useful information.

The authors include an abundance of examples, figures, and illustrations to clarify presented ideas, and additional material and software tools are available for download. The result is a powerful, practical instructional tool that gives readers a strong conceptual foundation on which to build a solid, functional understanding of thermodynamics engineering.


". . . written in such a way that in particular engineers will find it extremely useful. . . The layout is successful and the beautiful illustrations as well as the many written problems will make its useful as a textbook for undergraduate and graduate courses."

-Panayiotis Vlamos, President, V-Publications, Athens, Greece

Table of Contents

Thermolab Excel-Based Software for Thermodynamic Properties and Flame Temperatures of Fuels


Importance, Significance and Limitations

Review of Thermodynamics

Mathematical Background

Overview of Microscopic/Nanothermodynamics


Appendix: Stokes and Gauss Theorems

First Law of Thermodynamics

Zeroth Law

First Law for a Closed System

Quasi Equilibrium (QE) and Nonquasi-equilibrium (NQE) Processes

Enthalpy and First Law

Adiabatic Reversible Process for Ideal Gas with Constant Specific Heats

First Law for an Open System

Applications of First Law for an Open System

Integral and Differential Forms of Conservation Equations

Second Law of Thermodynamics and Entropy

Thermal and Mechanical Energy Reservoirs

Heat Engine and Heat Pump

Consequences of the Second Law


Entropy Balance Equation for a Closed System


Entropy Measurements and Evaluation

Local and Global Equilibrium

Entropy: Energy Relation for Single Component Incompressible Fluids

Third Law

Entropy Balance Equation for an Open System

Internally Reversible Work for an Open System

Irreversible Processes and Efficiencies

Cyclic Processes

Entropy Balance in Integral and Differential Form

Maximum Entropy and Minimum Energy

Generalized Derivation of Equilibrium for a Single Phase

Multiphase Multicomponent Equilibrium


Optimum Work and Irreversibility in a Closed System

Availability or Exergy Analyses for a Closed System

Generalized Availability Analysis

Availability/Exergetic Efficiency

Chemical Availability

Integral and Differential Forms of Availability Balance

Postulatory (Gibbsian) Thermodynamics

Classical Rationale for Postulatory Approach

Simple Compressible Substance

Legendre Transform

Application of Legendre Transform

Work Modes and Generalized State Relation

Thermodynamic Postulates for Simple Systems

Fundamental Equations in Thermodynamics

State Relationships for Real Gases and Liquids

Equations of State

Virial Equations

Clausius-I Equation of State

VW Equation of State

Redlich-Kwong Equation of State

Other Two-Parameter Equations of State

Compressibility Charts (Principle of Corresponding States)

Boyle Temperature and Boyle Curves

Deviation Function

Three Parameter Equations of State

Generalized Equation of State

Empirical Equations of State

State Equations for Liquids/Solids

Thermodynamic Properties of Pure Fluids

Ideal Gas Properties

James Clark Maxwell, 1831–1879 Relations

Generalized Relations

Evaluation of Thermodynamic Properties

Pitzer Effect

Kesler Equation of State (KES) and Kesler Tables


Experiments to Measure (uo – u)

Vapor/Liquid Equilibrium Curve

Throttling Processes

Development Of Thermodynamic Tables

Thermodynamic Properties of Mixtures

Generalized Relations and Partial and Mixture Molal Properties

Useful Relations for Partial Molal Properties

Ideal Gas Mixture

Ideal Solution


Excess Property

Osmotic Pressure

Molal Properties Using the Equations of State

Phase Equilibrium for a Mixture

Miscible, Immiscible, and Partially Miscible Mixture

Phase Equilibrium

Simplified Criteria for Phase Equilibrium

Pressure and Temperature Diagrams

Dissolved Gases in Liquids

Deviations from Raoult’s Law


Criteria for an Isolated System

Mathematical Criterion for Stability

Application to Boiling and Condensation

Entropy Generation during Irreversible Transformation

Spinodal Curves

Determination of Vapor Bubble and Drop Sizes

Chemically Reacting Systems

Chemical Reactions and Combustion


First Law Analyses for Chemically Reacting Systems

Combustion Analyses in the Case of Nonideal Behavior

Second Law Analysis of Chemically Reacting Systems

Mass Conservation and Mole Balance Equations

Overview on Energy Consumption and Combustion

Reaction Direction and Chemical Equilibrium

Reaction Direction and Chemical Equilibrium

Criteria for Direction of Reaction for Fixed Mass System

Chemical Equilibrium Relations

Van’t Hoff Equation

Equilibrium for Multiple Reactions

Adiabatic Flame Temperature with Chemical Equilibrium

Gibbs Minimization Method

Appendix: Equilibrium Constant for any Reaction in Terms of Equilibrium

Constants of Elements

Availability Analysis for Reacting Systems

Entropy Generation through Chemical Reactions


Fuel Cells

Fuel Availability

IC Engines and Exergy

Thermal Sciences and Biological Systems

Biomass Processing

Food and Nutrients

Human Body


Thermochemistry of Metabolism in Biological Systems

Heat Transfer Analysis from the Body

Body Temperature and Warm and Cold Blooded

Second Law and Entropy Generation in Biological Systems

Entropy Generation Through Chemical Reactions

Lifespan, Energy and Entropy



A Summary of Chapterwise Formulae

Appendix A: Tables

Appendix B: Charts

About the Authors


Dr. Kalyan Annamalai received his BS from Anna University (Engineering College at Guindy), Chennai, MS from the Indian Inst. of Science, Bangalore, and Ph.D. from the Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, USA. He worked at Brown University and later at AVCO-Everett Research Laboratory, Revere, Massachusetts, USA. He joined Texas A&M in 1981 as an Assistant Professor and is currently Paul Pepper Professor of Mechanical Engineering. He is also a Senior TEES Fellow of College of Engineering, Texas A&M. He is currently involved research projects dealing with coal and biomass combustion, gasification, NOx and Hg reductions using new reburn fuels and laser based sensor developments for NOx and Hg. He is a member of combustion institute and a fellow of American Society of Mechanical Engineers. He serves on the editorial boards of International Journal of Green Energy and Journal of Combustion, and serves as Associate Editor (Coal and Biomass) for the Transactions of ASME Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power.

Dr. Ishwar K. Puri is Professor and Department Head of Engineering Science and Mechanics at Virginia Tech. He is a Fellow of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers and of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. He serves as Secretary of the American Academy of Mechanics. He has edited a book on the environmental implications of combustion processes, and coauthored textbooks on advanced thermodynamics Engineering and on combustion science and engineering. He is the author of nearly 300 archival publications and conference presentations, and book chapters in the field of transport phenomena, fluid mechanics, combustion, and mathematical biology. He got his Ph.D. (1987), and M.S. (1984) degrees in Engineering Science (Applied Mechanics) from the University of California, San Diego after obtaining a B.Sc. (1982) in Mechanical Engineering from the University of Delhi (Delhi College of Engineering). He served as an Assistant Research Engineer at the University of California, San Diego from 1987-90. Thereafter, he was appointed as Assistant Professor in the Mechanical Engineering Department at the University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC) in 1990. He served at UIC as Associate Dean for Research and Graduate Studies (2000-01) and as Executive Associate Dean of Engineering (2001-04).

Dr. Milind A. Jog received his B. S. (Mechanical Engineering) in 1985 and M. S. in Mechanical Engineering (Thermal Fluid Science) in 1987, both from the Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay. He worked at Thermax Ltd. as a Design Engineer before joining the Ph. D. program. He received his Ph. D. from the University of Pennsylvania in 1993 and joined the faculty of the Department of Mechanical Engineering at the University of Cincinnati. Dr. Jog has received several research and teaching awards at the University of Cincinnati including the National Science Foundation CAREER Award, Sigma Xi Outstanding Investigator Award, Robert Hundley Award for Excellence in Teaching, and BP-Amoco Faculty Excellence Award. He was recognized as "Master Engineering Educator" by UC College of Engineering. He has published over 150 archival and journal papers in the field of sprays and atomization, two-phase flow, interfacial phenomena, and computational fluid dynamics and heat transfer. He is a member of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers and the Institute for Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems. He is a Regional Editor (North America) for the Journal of Enhanced Heat Transfer and has served as a Guest Editor for the ASME Journal of Heat Transfer.

About the Series

Applied and Computational Mechanics

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Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
SCIENCE / Energy
SCIENCE / Mechanics / Dynamics / Thermodynamics