Malaysia and South Africa implement the most extensive affirmative action programmes worldwide. This book explores why and how to effect preferential treatment which has been utilized in the pursuit of inter-ethnic parity, specifically in higher education, high-level occupations, enterprise development and wealth ownership. Through methodical and critical analyses of data on education, workforce and population, the book evaluates the primary objectives of increasing majority representation in education, employment, enterprise and ownership.
The book also critically considers questions of the attainments and limitations of ethnic preferential treatment in reducing disparity, the challenges of developing capability and reducing dependency and the scope for policy reforms.
Table of Contents
1. Preference for Parity: Purposes, Contexts and Instruments of Affirmative Action Part 1 Theoretical and Historical Underpinnings 2. Concepts, Complexities, Contentions 3. Policy Regimes: A Study in Contrasts Part 2 Affirmative Action in Practice: Quotas, Codes and Preferences 4. Affirmative Action Pillars and Programmes: Malaysia 5. Affirmative Action Pillars and Programmes: South Africa Part 3 Policy Achievements and Reforms: Progress, Shortfalls and Prospects 6. Empirical Literature and Analytical Framework 7. Affirmative Action Outcomes in Malaysia 8. Affirmative Action Outcomes in South Africa 9. Taking Stock and Looking Ahead. Bibliography
Hwok-Aun Lee is Senior Fellow at the ISEAS-Yusof Ishak Institute, Singapore.