1st Edition

African Women in the Fourth Industrial Revolution Change, Policies, and Approaches

Edited By Tinuade Adekunbi Ojo, Bhaso Ndzendze Copyright 2025
    308 Pages 18 B/W Illustrations
    by Routledge

    This book investigates how women in Africa are being impacted by the fourth industrial revolution, which describes the twenty-first century proliferation of mobile internet, machine learning and artificial intelligence.

    The move towards digitalization brings fundamental changes in the way people work, live and generally relate to each other. However, in many areas of Africa, women face digital inclusion challenges, and their lack of access to the internet limits their social, political and economic participation in globalisation. This book considers the different policy approaches taken in African countries, and their preparedness for enabling women’s participation in the fourth industrial revolution, across a range of sectors. Discussing key topics such as artificial intelligence, technological adaptation, drones, entrepreneurship, education and financial inclusion, the book identifies positive policy approaches to ensure equitable progress towards the fourth industrial revolution at all structural levels.

    Making a powerful case for the benefits of inclusive digital innovation, this book will be of interest to researchers of women and technology in Africa.

    Chapter 1. Women and the 4IR in Africa

    Tinuade Adekunbi Ojo and Bhaso Ndzendze      

    Chapter 2. IR for, not against, African Women  

    Mpho Nyamathe and Mancha J. Sekgololo        

    Chapter 3. The Role of Women in the Development and Application of Artificial Intelligence in Africa

    Adeyinka Patrick Adewumi, Tahir Adekunle Ijaiya and Ibukunoluwa Zainab Oluotanmi  

    Chapter 4. Technological Adaptation and Sociopolitical Behavior of Women in Africa    

    Jeremiah Oluwadara Omotayo 

    Chapter 5. Africa’s Economy in the Fourth Industrial Revolution (4IR): Assessment of Gender in Financial Inclusion

    Kemi Funlayo Akeju    

    Chapter 6. Women’s Inequality in the Era of Artificial Intelligence: The Response from Botswana and South Africa

    Tinuade Adekunbi Ojo

    Chapter 7. Women in the Fourth Industrial Revolution (4IR): Perspectives, Opportunities, and Implications for Nigeria and South Africa         

    Dare Leke Idowu

    Chapter 8. The Fourth Industrial Revolution: Challenges and Impact on Zimbabwe Women

    Valerie Rumbidzai Jeche          

    Chapter 9.  Digital Gender Inclusion and Women's Economic Empowerment in Ethiopia and Nigeria

    Omosefe Oyekanmi

    Chapter 10. An Exploration of the Indispensability and Challenges of Digitalization through the Lens of Women in the Maritime Domain

    Adeola Oluwatoyin Osundiran

    Chapter 11. Covid-19 and the Digital Transformation in Nigeria’s Higher Education System: Gendered Discourses           

    Moses Metumara Duruji, Edidiong Samuel Akpabio and Efehi Raymond Okoro

    Chapter 12. Smartphone-Mediated Co-Presence Amid Covid-19: A Case Study of African Migrant Women in Johannesburg, South Africa      

    Celine Meyers 

    Chapter 13. Gender Equity, Good Governance, and Leadership in the 4IR in Eastern Cape Schools

    Mpumelelo Ndlovu and Tafadzwa Clementine Maramura

    Chapter 14. Using Digital Technology to Address Gender-Based Violence in South Africa

    Zainab Monisola Olaitan

    Chapter 15. Gender Bias in Artificial Intelligence Algorithms and the Underrepresentation of Women in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics:  The Case of Malian Women

    Blessing Mbalaka, James Maisiri and Ugar Edmund Teren        

    Chapter 16. Fourth Industrial Revolution and Women’s Peacebuilding Initiatives in Africa

    Victor Ogunele Obaba, Omosefe Oyekanmi and Tinuade Adekunbi Ojo

    Chapter 17. A Digital Divide: Assessing the Developmental Status for Women in Rural Areas in the Advent of the 4IR in South Africa

    Nomzamo Gondwe       

    Chapter 18. Drones, Artificial intelligence (AI), the Chibok Girls and the Future of Counterterrorism in Nigeria

    Sven Botha


    Tinuade Adekunbi Ojo is an Associate Professor in the Department of Politics and International Relations and Head Unit of Pan-African Women studies at the Institute of Pan-African Thought and Conversation (IPATC) University of Johannesburg, South Africa.

    Bhaso Ndzendze is an Associate Professor, Vice Dean of Internalisation, and Head of the Department of Politics and International Relations at the University of Johannesburg, South Africa. Ndzendze is also Head of the 4IR and Digital Policy Research Unit and Co-Chair of the Internationalisation Task Team at the University of Johannesburg.