Air Pollution Control Technology Handbook: 2nd Edition (Paperback) book cover

Air Pollution Control Technology Handbook

2nd Edition

By Karl B. Schnelle, Jr., Russell F. Dunn, Mary Ellen Ternes

CRC Press

430 pages

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Description

A detailed reference for the practicing engineer, Air Pollution Control Technology Handbook, Second Edition focuses on air pollution control systems and outlines the basic process engineering and cost estimation required for its design. Written by seasoned experts in the field, this book offers a fundamental understanding of the factors resulting in air pollution and covers the techniques and equations used for air pollution control.

Anyone with an engineering or science background can effectively select techniques for control, review alternative design methods and equipment proposals from vendors, and initiate cost studies of control equipment using this book. This second edition of a bestseller includes new methods for designing control equipment, enhanced material on air pollution science, updates on major advances in the field, and explains the importance of a strategy for identifying the most cost-effective design.

The book also covers:

  • New legislation and updates on air regulation
  • New advances in process integration design techniques
  • The atmospheric and health effects of air pollution

Air Pollution Control Technology Handbook, Second Edition helps combat the solution problem with extensive coverage of air pollution control processes. Fully updated with new legislation, air regulations, and extensive reviews of the design of control equipment, this book serves as an ideal reference for industry professionals or anyone with an engineering or science background needing a basic introduction to air pollution control equipment design.

Reviews

"The Air Pollution Control Technology Handbook is ideal for any engineer facing an air pollution challenge. In straightforward language, it presents the information that the design engineer needs. From understanding the regulations and drivers behind them, to permitting, sampling, and modeling, this reference helps the engineer new to air pollution control problems understand what they are dealing with, why it is important, and how to assess the magnitude of the issue they are facing."

—E. W. Crabtree, Enercon Services, Inc., USA

"This is an excellent resource that I enthusiastically recommend for environmental and process engineers, consultants, academic researchers, and students. The highly-qualified authors provide an authoritative and comprehensive coverage of air pollution control technologies, regulations, economics, design, and practice. Written in a clear and exciting manner, the book balances the coverage of fundamentals and basic phenomena with practical experience."

—Mahmoud El-Halwagi, Texas A&M University, College Station, USA

Table of Contents

Historical Overview of the Development of Clean Air Regulations

A Brief History of the Air Pollution Problem

Federal Involvement in Air Pollution Control

Characterizing the Atmosphere

Recipe for an Air Pollution Problem

Clean Air Act

History of the Clean Air Act

1990 Clean Air Act Amendments

Air Permits for New Source

Elements of a Permit Application

Best Available Control Technology

Air Quality Analysis

NSR Reform

Atmospheric Diffusion Modeling for Prevention of Significant Deterioration Permit Regulations and Regional Haze

Introduction—Meteorological Background

Tall Stack

Classifying Sources by Method of Emission

Atmospheric-Diffusion Models

Environmental Protection Agency’s Computer Programs for Regulation of Industry

Source-Transport-Receptor Problem

Source Testing

Introduction

Code of Federal Regulations

Representative Sampling Techniques

Ambient Air Quality and Continuous Emissions Monitoring

Ambient Air-Quality Sampling Program

Objectives of a Sampling Program

Federal Reference Methods and Continuous Monitoring

Complete Environmental Surveillance and Control System

Typical Air Sampling Train

Integrated Sampling Devices for Suspended Particulate Matter

Continuous Air-Quality Monitors

Cost Estimating

Time Value of Money

Types of Cost Estimates

Air Pollution Control Equipment Cost

Process Design and the Strategy of Process Design

Introduction to Process Design

Strategy of Process Design

Mass and Energy Balances

Systems-Based Approaches to Design

Profitability and Engineering Economics

Introduction—Profit Goal

Profitability Analysis

Effect of Depreciation

Capital Investment and Total Product Cost

Introduction to Control of Gaseous Pollutants

Absorption and Adsorption

Process Synthesis Technology for the Design of Volatile Organic Compounds Recovery Systems

Absorption for Hazardous Air Pollutants and Volatile Organic Compounds Control

Introduction

Aqueous Systems

Nonaqueous Systems

Types and Arrangements of Absorption Equipment

Design Techniques for Countercurrent Absorption Columns

Countercurrent Flow Packed Absorption Tower Design

Sample Design Calculation

Adsorption for Hazardous Air Pollutants and Volatile Organic Compounds Control

Introduction to Adsorption Operations

Adsorption Phenomenon

Adsorption Processes

Nature of Adsorbents

Theories of Adsorption

Data of Adsorption

Adsorption Isotherms

Polanyi Potential Theory

Unsteady-State, Fixed-Bed Adsorbers

Fixed-Bed Adsorber Design Considerations

Pressure Drop through Adsorbers

Adsorber Effectiveness, Regeneration, and Reactivation

Breakthrough Model

Regeneration Modeling

Using Mass Exchange Network Concepts to Simultaneously Evaluate Multiple Mass-Separating Agent (Absorbent and Adsorbent) Options

Thermal Oxidation for Volatile Organic Compounds Control

Combustion Basics

Flares

Incineration

Control of Volatile Organic Compounds and Hazardous Air Pollutants by Condensation

Introduction

Volatile Organic Compounds Condensers

Coolant and Heat Exchanger Type

Mixtures of Organic Vapors

Air as a Noncondensable

Systems-Based Approach for Designing Condensation Systems for Volatile Organic Compounds Recovery from Gaseous Emission Streams

Control of Volatile Organic Compounds and Hazardous Air Pollutants by Biofiltration

Introduction

Theory of Biofilter Operation

Design Parameters and Conditions

Biofilter Compared to Other Available Control Technology

Successful Case Studies

Further Considerations

Membrane Separation

Overview

Polymeric Membranes

Performance

Applications

Membrane Systems Design

NOx Control

NOx from Combustion

Control Techniques

Control of SOx

H2S Control

SO2 (and HCL) Removal

SO3 and Sulfuric Acid

Fundamentals of Particulate Control

Particle Size Distribution

Aerodynamic Diameter

Cunningham Slip Correction

Collection Mechanisms

Hood and Ductwork Design

Introduction

Hood Design

Duct Design

Effect of Entrance into a Hood

Total Energy Loss

Fan Power

Hood–Duct Example

Cyclone Design

Collection Efficiency

Pressure Drop

Saltation

Design and Application of Wet Scrubbers

Introduction

Collection Mechanisms and Efficiency

Collection Mechanisms and Particle Size

Selection and Design of Scrubbers

Devices for Wet Scrubbing

Semrau Principle and Collection Efficiency

Model for Countercurrent Spray Chambers

A Model for Venturi Scrubbers

Calvert Cut Diameter Design Technique

Cut–Power Relationship

Filtration and Baghouses

Introduction

Design Issues

Cleaning Mechanisms

Fabric Properties

Baghouse Size

Pressure Drop

Bag Life

Baghouse Design Theory

Electrostatic Precipitators

Early Development

Basic Theory

Practical Application of Theory

Flue Gas Conditioning

Using V-I Curves for Troubleshooting

References

About the Authors

Karl B. Schnelle, Jr.,Ph.D, PE, is Professor Emeritus of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, and has been a member of the Vanderbilt University faculty for more than 55 years. He has published extensively in the chemical engineering and environmental area, is an emeritus member of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers and the Air and Waste Management Association, and a Fellow of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers. He was a lecturer in the American Institute of Chemical Engineers’ continuing education program for more than 30 years, where he taught air pollution control systems design and atmospheric dispersion modeling courses.

Russell F. Dunn, Ph.D, PE, is a Professor of the Practice of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering at Vanderbilt University. He also has prior academic experience teaching chemical engineering courses at Auburn University and the Technical University of Denmark. He has authored numerous publications and presentations on chemical and environmental engineering design, in addition to having more than 30 years of professional experience. Dr. Dunn is the Founder and President of Polymer and Chemical Technologies, LLC, a company that provides chemical process and product failure analysis, in addition to developing environmental and energy-based process designs for large chemical plants.

Mary Ellen Ternes,BE, Ch.E, JD, is a Director at Crowe & Dunlevy, in the law firm’s Environmental, Energy and Natural Resources Practice Group. Building on her career as a chemical engineer for U.S.EPA and industry, Ternes became a lawyer and for over 20 years, has advised clients regarding Clean Air Act permitting, compliance, enforcement and litigation. Ternes has published and lectured extensively on the Clean Air Act. She is former Chair of the American Bar Association’s Section of Environment, Energy and Resources Air Quality Committee; the Climate Change, Sustainable Development and Ecosystems Committee; and the Annual Conference on Environmental Law.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
NAT011000
NATURE / Environmental Conservation & Protection
SCI026000
SCIENCE / Environmental Science
TEC017000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Industrial Health & Safety