Air Pollution and Freshwater Ecosystems : Sampling, Analysis, and Quality Assurance book cover
1st Edition

Air Pollution and Freshwater Ecosystems
Sampling, Analysis, and Quality Assurance

ISBN 9781138747562
Published June 8, 2018 by CRC Press
346 Pages

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Book Description

A practical book for professionals who rely on water quality data for decision making, this book is based on three decades experience of three highly published water and watershed resource professionals. It focuses on the analysis of air pollution sensitive waters and the consequent effects associated with soil and water acidification, nutrient-N enrichment, or the effects of atmospherically deposited toxic substances. It also covers lake zooplankton and/or stream macroinvertebrate biomonitors. Explanations of the reasons behind various recommendations provide readers with the tools needed to alter recommended protocols to match particular study needs and budget.

Table of Contents

Purpose and Study Design
Background 1
Study Design

Water Chemistry Field Sampling
Where, What, and When to Sample
Field Methods

Laboratory Analyses
Laboratory Preparation Prior to Sample Analysis
Chemical Analysis

Quality Assurance/Quality Control
Attributes of Data Quality
QA/QC Sample Types
Field QA
Reporting QA Data
Laboratory Audits and Certification
Data Entry

Data Analysis
Background and Objectives
Evaluation of Data Quality
Apply Procedures to Prepare Raw Data for Graphical and Statistical Analysis
Conduct Exploratory Analyses
Conduct, If Needed, Statistical Analyses
Summary and Conclusions

Field Sampling for Aquatic Biota
Aquatic Invertebrate Study Design
Site Selection
Pretrip Preparation
Collection Procedures
Sample Processing, Preservation, and Handling
Documentation and Tracking
Laboratory Analysis of Biological Samples
Quality Assurance

Transition Plan
Transition Steps5
Decision of Whether to Change Protocols

Appendix A: Protocols, Guidance Documents, and MethodsManuals Reviewed
Appendix B: Basic Standard Operating Procedures forStream Field-Sampling Activities
Appendix C: Basic Standard Operating Procedures for Lake Field-Sampling Activities
Appendix D: Data Entry Forms and Labels for Field-Sampling Activities

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Dr. Timothy Sullivan holds a BA in history from Stonehill College, Easton, Massachusetts (1972); an MA in biology from Western State College, Gunnison, Colorado (1977); and a PhD in biological sciences from Oregon State University, Corvallis (1983) through an interdisciplinary program that included areas of focus in ecology, zoology, and environmental chemistry. He did his postdoctoral research at the Center for Industrial Research in Oslo, Norway, on surface and groundwater acidification, episodic hydrologic processes, and aluminum biogeochemistry. His expertise includes the effects of air pollution on aquatic and terrestrial resources, watershed analysis, critical loads, ecosystem services, nutrient cycling, aquatic acidbase chemistry, episodic processes controlling surface water chemistry, and environmental assessment. He has been president of E&S Environmental Chemistry, Inc., since 1988 and E&S Environmental Restoration, Inc., since 1996. He has served as project manager or lead author for a wide variety of projects that have synthesized for diverse audiences complex air and water pollution effects science. He was project manager of the effort to draft a scientific summary and Integrated Scientific Assessment (ISA) of the effects of nitrogen and sulfur oxides on terrestrial, transitional, and aquatic ecosystems for the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in support of its review of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). He was author of the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP) State of Science and Technology Report on past changes in surface water acid-base chemistry throughout the United States from acidic deposition. He served as project manager for preparation of air quality reviews for national parks throughout California and coauthored similar reviews for the Pacific Northwest and the Rocky Mountain and Great Plains regions. He has summarized air pollution effects at all 272 Inventory and Monitoring national parks in the United States and has managed dozens of air and water pollution modeling and assessment studies throughout the United States for the National Park Service, US Forest Service, and EPA. He has published a book on the aquatic effects of acidic deposition and more than 125 peer-reviewed journal articles, book chapters, and technical reports describing the results of his research.

Dr. Alan Herlihy is a senior research professor at Oregon State University in the Department of Fisheries and Wildlife. His current research projects focus on developing survey design methodology, assessment approaches, and ecological indicators for assessing surface water ecological condition at large regional scales. He was a primary technical contributor to the 1990 National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program’s Integrated Assessment report to Congress, the EPA/Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) Mid-Atlantic Highlands Stream Assessment, and the Western Streams and Rivers Assessment. He was the primary author of the chapters in the EMAP stream and river field manual on water chemistry sampling, qualitative site assessment, and sample reach layout. Currently, he is involved with the data analysis and assessment of the National Aquatic Resource Surveys conducted by the EPA Office of Water.

James Webb holds a BS in environmental science from Davis and Elkins College, Elkins, West Virginia (1983) and an MS in environmental science from the University of Virginia, Charlottesville (1988). He is presently a senior scientist in the Department of Environmental Sciences at the University of Virginia, where he served for 25 years as projects coordinator for the Shenandoah Watershed Study and the Virginia Trout Stream Sensitivity Study ( He has authored and coauthored numerous reports and journal articles concerning watershed response to atmospheric acidic deposition in the forested mountains of the central Appalachian Mountains region. He has participated in the design and management of water quality studies and surveys, monitoring programs, and assessments related to national park, national forest, and other conservation lands in the region. He served as an academic community representative on the Technical Oversight Committee and as coauthor of the Aquatic Effects Technical Report for the multiagency Southern Appalachian Mountains Initiative. He has contributed to multiple National Park Service assessments, including participation as coprincipal investigator for the Shenandoah National Park: Fish in Sensitive Habitats project and the Assessment of Air Quality and Air Pollutant Impacts in the Shenandoah National Park. He was a coauthor of the Trout Unlimited report, Current and Projected Status of Coldwater Fish Communities in the Southeastern US in the Context of Continued Acid Deposition. He has contributed to EPA reports on status and changes in the acid-base chemistry of surface waters in the United States related to implementation of the Clean Air Act. His previous involvement in protocol and standard operating procedure development for environmental monitoring has included work for the National Park Service and the US Department of Agriculture Forest Service.


"… offers an original approach in dealing with atmospheric pollution, addressing key linkages between air pollution and its impact on aquatic ecosystems. …The reader who grasps the materials presented will be well equipped to design, implement, and interpret most types of water quality studies and better understand the impacts of human activities on watershed health."
International Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry, 2015

"This book deserves high praise for addressing key linkages between air pollutants and their impacts on aquatic ecosystems. It is an excellent exposition of different dimensions of water pollution, its measurement and analysis. It has a wealth of information conveyed in a lucid manner for students and researchers alike."
—Dr. Hem H. Dholakia, Research Fellow, Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad

"The authors have each spent more than 30 years designing and implementing long-term monitoring programs and spatially extensive synoptic surveys, managing laboratories and quality assurance programs, and analyzing freshwater data for both scientific and management/policy applications. They come from the public, private, and academic sectors and bring a range of perspective that is reflected in the breadth of protocols and discussion presented in the book. This combined experience has produced a timely volume that is sure to become a popular addition to the libraries of freshwater ecologists and biogeochemists."
—Dr. Bernard J. Cosby, Group Leader Catchments and Soils, Centre for Ecology and Hydrology Environment Centre Wales, Bangor, Gwynedd, UK

"… it is indeed fortunate that these highly qualified authors are sharing their careers-worth of experience in how to design and maintain water monitoring programs and associated assessments and to underscore the importance of long-term water quality monitoring and the necessity for good program design and rigorous protocols."
—James Galloway, University of Virginia

"This thoughtful book by masters of the science should become a classic on which new and/or redesigned studies can build."
—Professor Kevin Bishop, Uppsala University, Department of Earth Sciences

"Drawing from their considerable experience coordinating large-scale sampling programs, Sullivan et al. have written a book that should serve as a first stop for any researcher, water resources professional, or student about to embark upon the monitoring of freshwater ecosystems. … with emphasis placed on the effects from atmospherically-derived acids and toxic metals, the key principles of building a successful sampling program are easily adaptable to a wide range of water quality measurement and monitoring applications."
—Todd M. Scanlon, Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Virginia

"… a self-explanatory and ideal tool for professionals, involved in water quality and watershed research, aquatic ecology, wetland biodiversity, decision and policy makers, conservation units, managerial teams (including planners, practitioners, and programmers) for designing and implementing long-standing monitoring programs, aquatic laboratory managers, government and non-government sectors, water resources professionals, academicians and students."
—Dr. Hiren B. Soni, Institute of Science & Technology for Advanced Studies & Research (ISTAR), Department of Environmental Science & Technology (EST), Vallabh Vidyanagar-388120 (Gujarat) INDIA

"… this voluminous work will undoubtedly fascinate all those who have dedicated their career in one way or the other towards understanding and managing the aquatic resources. I am sure, it will particularly interest modern fraternity involved addressing these questions of ecology and environmental sciences. Such workers will find in this volume a holistic view of knowledge that has not been previously assembled at one place. Moreover, in so doing, they will find the essential scientific basis for understanding an emerging paradigm for management of water and watershed resource."
—Professor of Environmental Science, Banaras Hindu University, India

"The authors of this book draw on their 30 years of experience designing and implementing water quality monitoring programs to create this valuable reference for freshwater ecologists and biogeochemists. They explore study design and techniques for water chemistry field sampling. They also consider laboratory procedures, quality control, data analysis and how to sample the aquatic biota. Included in the appendix are specific protocols, guidance documents and data entry forms."
Ringgold, Inc. Book News, February 2015