Almost All Aliens offers a unique reinterpretation of immigration in the history of the United States. Leaving behind the traditional melting-pot model of immigrant assimilation, Paul Spickard puts forward a fresh and provocative reconceptualization that embraces the multicultural reality of immigration that has always existed in the United States. His astute study illustrates the complex relationship between ethnic identity and race, slavery, and colonial expansion. Examining not only the lives of those who crossed the Atlantic, but also those who crossed the Pacific, the Caribbean, and the North American Borderlands, Almost All Aliens provides a distinct, inclusive analysis of immigration and identity in the United States from 1600 until the present.
For additional information and classroom resources please visit the Almost All Aliens companion website at www.routledge.com/textbooks/almostallaliens.
Table of Contents
1 Immigration, Race, Ethnicity, Colonialism
Beyond Ellis Island—How Not to Think about Immigration History
Not Assimilation But Race Making
2. Colliding Peoples in Eastern North America, 1600–1780
In the Beginning There Were Indians
There Goes the Neighborhood: European Incursion and “Settlement”
A Mixed Multitude: European Migrants
Out of Africa
Merging Peoples, Blending Cultures
3 An Anglo-American Republic? Racial Citizenship,
Slavery and Antislavery in the Era of the American Revolution
Free White Persons: Defining Membership
Playing Indian: White Appropriations of Native American Symbols and Identities
Issues in European Migration
Were the Irish Ever Not White?
4 The Border Crossed Us: Euro-Americans Take the
U.S. Colonial Expansion across North America
Taking the Mexican Northlands
East from Asia
Slave and Citizen
Colonialism and Race Making
5 The Great Wave, 1870–1930
From New Sources and Old, to America and Back
Making a Multiethnic Working Class in the West
6 Cementing Hierarchy: Issues and Interpretations,
How They Lived and Worked
Gender and Migration
Angles of Entry
Making Jim Crow in the South
Making Racial and Ethnic Hierarchy in the North
Empire and Race Making
Law, Race, and Immigration
Racialist Pseudoscience and Its Offspring
7 White People’s America, 1924–1965
Recruiting Guest Workers
Indians or Citizens?
World War II
Cracks in White Hegemony
Racial Fairness and the Immigration Act of 1965
8 New Migrants from New Places Since 1965
Some Migrants We Know
From the Americas
Continuing Involvements Abroad
9 Redefining Membership Amid Multiplicity Since 1965
Immigration Reform, Again and Again
Disgruntled White People
New Issues in a New Era
10 Epilogue: Future Uncertain
Race, Ethnicity, and Immigration at the Dawn
of the Twenty-First Century
Projecting the Future
Chronology of Immigration and Naturalization Laws and Decisions
Illustration Permission Acknowledgments
Also by Paul Spickard
Paul Spickard is Professor of History at the University of California, Santa Barbara. He is co-author of Revealing the Sacred in Asian and Pacific America (Routledge 2003) and editor of Race and Nation: Ethnic Systems in the Modern World (Routledge 2004).
"Placing race at the center of his story, Spickard offers an important corrective to dominant immigrant narratives about European huddled masses and bountiful golden doors. As immigration debates rage, Almost All Aliens provides vital historical perspective."
—Thomas A. Guglielmo, Assistant Professor, American Studies Department, George Washington University
"Almost All Aliens is simply stunning. Spickard powerfully connects the study of immigration to the histories of race, slavery, and the displacement of Native peoples. In doing so, he revises both immigration history and American history."
—Erika Lee, author of At America's Gates: Chinese Immigration During the Exclusion Era, 1882-1943
"With Almost All Aliens Paul Spickard again demonstrates that he is one of our most skillful and innovative interpreters of race and ethnicity in American life. He challenges most of the assumptions made about the topic since Crèvecoeur asked his fateful question and provides an exciting analytic narrative of our immigrant past."
—Roger Daniels, Charles Phelps Taft Professor Emeritus of History, University of Cincinnati
"Almost All Aliens is a stunning achievement! By combining the insights of the massive recent literature on immigration, race, and colonialism, Paul Spickard has produced a masterful new narrative of U.S. immigration history for the 21st century. Immensely readable and thoroughly provocative, it will delight students and scholars of immigration alike."
—George J. Sanchez, University of Southern California, author of Becoming Mexican American
"With this book, Paul Spickard has produced the best single-volume study of American immigration history available today."
— K. Scott Wong, Williams College