1st Edition

American Herbal Pharmacopoeia Botanical Pharmacognosy - Microscopic Characterization of Botanical Medicines

    800 Pages 2101 Color Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    Winner of the James A. Duke Award for Excellence in Botanical Literature Award from the American Botanical Council

    Compiled by the American Herbal Pharmacopoeia®, this volume addresses the lack of authoritative microscopic descriptions of those medicinal plant species currently in trade. It includes an atlas providing detailed text and graphic descriptions of more than 140 medicinal plant species and their adulterants.

    Designed to meet the needs of the herbal products industry, regulatory agencies, and academic researchers, the book covers plant anatomy at a level appropriate for the pharmacognostic analysis of plant tissues, provides extensive coverage of the history and importance of botanical microscopy, and gives instruction on how to set up a microscopy lab and prepare, view, and archive whole and powdered plant parts for microscopic analysis.

    The botanicals covered represent 90 percent of the dollar value of botanical sales in the United States. The focus is on those species that are in high use, and those that are commonly adulterated. It also covers a number of popular Asian botanicals, providing the first English language description for many of these.

    Introduction to Botanical Microscopy
    Pharmacognosy: From Dioscorides to Modern Herbal Medicines
    What’s in a Name? Nomenclature of Botanical Materials
    To Be or Not To Be? A Focus on Botanical Adulteration
    Microscopy for Identification of Botanical Raw Materials: Uses and Limitations
    Setting Up a Microscopy Lab
    Major Plant Groups
    Structures of the Primary Plant Body and Basic Plant Anatomy
    Diagnostic Characteristics of Tissues
    Organization of Tissues in Medicinal Plant Parts
    Preparation of Samples for Microscopic Analysis

    Botanical Microscopy Atlas
    Achillea millefolium L.
    Aconitum carmichaeli Debx., Aconitum kusnezoffi Reicher
    Actaea racemosa L. syn. Cimicifuga racemosa (L.) Nutt
    Aesculus hippocastanum
    Akebia trifoliata (Thunb.) Koidz
    Aletris farinosa L.
    Allium sativum L.
    Angelica archangelica L.
    Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels
    Arctium lappa L.
    Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng
    Aristolochia fangchi Y. C. Wu ex L. D. Chou & S. M. Hwang
    Aristolochia manshuriensis Kom
    Arnica montana L.
    Astragalus mongholicus Bunge syn. A. membranaceus Bunge, A. membranaceus Bunge var. mongholicus(Bunge) P. K. Hsiao
    Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz
    Atropa belladonna L.
    Bacopa monnieri (L.) Pennell syn. Bacopa monnieria (L.) Wettstein
    Bupleurum spp
    Caulophyllum thalictroides (L.) Michx
    Centella asiatica (L.) Urb
    Cephaelis ipecacuanha (Brot.)Rich. and Cephaelis acuminata Karsten
    Chamaelirium luteum (L.) A. Gray
    Chamaemelum nobile (L.) All
    Chimaphila umbellata (L.) W.P.C. Barton
    Cinchona succirubra Pav. ex Klotzsch (syn. C. pubescens Vahl)
    Clematis armandii Franch
    Clematis chinensis Retz
    Codonopsis pilosula (Franch.) Nannf., Codonopsis tangshen Oliv
    Cola nitida (Vent.) A. Chev
    Coptis chinensis Franch., Coptis deltoidea C. Y. Cheng et Hsiao, Coptis teeta Wall
    Crataegus laevigata (Poir.) DC Hawthorn Fruit
    Crataegus laevigata (Poir.) DC Hawthorn Leaf and Flower
    Crataegus monogyna Jacq. Hawthorn Fruit
    Crataegus monogyna Jacq. Hawthorn Leaf and Flower
    Curcuma longa L.
    Datura stramonium L.
    Digitalis lanata Ehrh
    Digitalis purpurea L.
    Echinacea angustifolia DC
    Echinacea atrorubens Nutt
    Echinacea pallida (Nutt.) Nutt
    Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench Aerial Parts
    Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench Root and Rhizome
    Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench Seed
    Eleutherococcus senticosus (Rupr. & Maxim.) Maxim
    Ephedra sinica Stapf, Ephedra equisetina Bunge, E. intermedia
    Epimedium spp
    Equisetum arvense L.
    Eupatorium fistulosum Barratt syn. E. purpureum L.
    Eupatorium perfoliatum L.
    Frangula alnus Mill. syn. Rhamnus frangulaL.
    Frangula purshiana (DC.) J. G. Cooper syn. Rhamnus purshianaDC
    Ganoderma lucidum P. Karst
    Ginkgo biloba L.
    Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch. ex DC., Glycyrrhiza inflata Batalin Glycyrrhiza Glabra L.
    Grifola frondosa (Dicks: Fr.) S.F. Gray
    Hamamelis virginiana L.
    Hedysarum polybotris Hand.-Mazz
    Humulus lupulus L.
    Hydrastis canadensis L. Leaf
    Hydrastis canadensis L. Rhizome and Root
    Hypericum perforatum L.
    Illicium anisatum L.
    Illicium verum J. D. Hook
    Larrea tridentata (Sessé & Moç. ex DC.) Coville
    Lentinula edodes (Berk.) Singer syn. Lentinus edodes (Berk) Singer
    Levisticum officinale W. Koch
    Ligusticum porteri J. M. Coult.& Rose
    Ligustrum lucidum W. T. Aiton
    Lycium chinense Mill.,L. barbarum L.
    Mahonia nervosa (Pursh.) Nutt
    Matricaria recutita L.
    Melissa officinalis L.
    Mentha × piperitaL.
    Mentha pulegium L.
    Mitchella repens L.
    Oplopanax horridus (Sm.) Miq
    Panax ginsengC. A. Mey. Root (unprocessed)
    Panax ginsengC. A. Mey. Root (processed)
    Panax pseudo ginseng (Burkill) F. H. Chen ex C. Chow & W. G. Huang
    Panax quinquefolius L.
    Parthenium integrifolium L.
    Passiflora incarnata L.
    Paullinia cupana Kunth
    Pausinystalia johimbe (K. Schum.) Pierre ex Beille
    Periploca sepium Bunge
    Petasites frigidus (L.) Frigs
    Phyllanthus emblica L
    Piper methysticum G.Forst
    Plantago lanceolata L.
    Plantago major L.
    Polygonum multiflorum Thunb
    Prunus africanum (Hook f.) Kalkman (syn. Pygeum africanum Hook. f.)
    Prunus serotina Ehrh
    Rauvolfia serpentina (L.) Benth . ex Kurz
    Rheum spp. (Rheum officinale Baillon, Rheum palmatum L., Rheum tanguticum Maxim. ex Balf.)
    Rhodiola rosea L.
    Rumex crispus L.
    Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge
    Saussurea costus (Falc.) Lipsch. Root syn. Aucklandia costus Falc.; Aucklandia lappa Decne.; Saussurea lappa Decne. C. B. Clarke
    Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill
    Schisandra sphenanthera Rehder & E. H. Wilson
    Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi
    Scutellaria lateriflora L.
    Senna alexandrina Mill. (syn. Cassia senna, C. angustifolia, C. acutifolia)
    Senna alexandrina Mill
    Serenoa repens (W. Bartram) Small
    Serratula spp
    Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn
    Stephania tetrandra S. Moore
    Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) Bertoni
    Symphytum officinale L. Leaf
    Symphytum officinale L. Root
    Tanacetum parthenium (L.) Sch.Bip
    Taraxacum officinale Weber ex F. H. Wigg. Leaf
    Taraxacum officinale Weber ex F. H. Wigg. Root
    Terminalia bellerica (Gaertn.) Roxb
    Terminalia chebula Retz
    Teucrium chamaedrys L.
    Trifolium pratense L.
    Tussilago farfara L.
    Ulmus rubra Muhl
    Uncaria tomentosa (Willd.) DC
    Urtica dioica L. Aerial Parts
    Urtica dioica L. Rhizome and Root
    Urtica urens L.
    Vaccinium macrocarpon Aiton
    Vaccinium myrtillus L.
    Valeriana officinalis L.
    Viburnum opulus L.
    Viburnum prunifolium L.
    Vitex agnus-castus L.
    Withania somnifera L. Dunal
    Zingiber officinale Roscoe
    Glossary of Botanical Microscopy Terminology
    References and Bibliography


    Roy Upton, Alison Graff Georgina Jolliffe, Reinhard Länger, Elizabeth Williamson

    "This volume identifies plants by the classical method of light microscopy. Most earlier texts only listed plants used as drugs and never as extensively as the 135 economically valuable plants covered in this book. With a forward by our past DEB Norman Farnsworth, this text does an excellent job of offering adequate background on plant anatomy, diagnostic techniques, and tools of the trade. The drawings and images are very good and it is now no longer necessary to use analytical tools if one has good references such as this to identify plant powders and parts when manufacturing herbal products. This book received the James Duke Book Award from American Botanical Council publisher of Herbalgram. This microscopy text is invaluable to the natural products industry as it raises the scientific standards."
    —Trish Flaster, Society For Economic Botany Newsletter, PLANTS & PEOPLE, Volume 26 Spring 2012

    "… an authoritative and weighty book on the microscopic characterisation and identification of herbal medicines. … compiled by some of the leading experts in this field. In my view, this book will soon become a standard, universally accepted test in the area of pharmacognosy. Hence, this book should be on the shelves of every researcher of herbal medicine."
    Focus on Alternative and Complementary Therapies, March 2012 17(1)

    "…the real strength of this text is precisely its focus on botanical microscopy. I sincerely hope this excellent volume will rekindle interest in the botanical aspect of pharmacognosy in general and botanical microscopy in particular and contribute to the revitalisation of microscopy as an important tool for the quality control of herbal medicinal products and dietary supplements."
    —Hans Wohlmuth, Southern Cross Plant Science, Southern Cross University NSW 2480, Australia, in the Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 2012

    "Overall, Microscopic Characterization of Botanical Medicines is a complete 'selfstarter kit.' Obviously, there are many other great resources available for those in need of more in-depth knowledge for the many topics covered in this book. But, if you want to learn about preparing botanical samples and viewing them under a microscope, gain understanding of the history of pharmacognosy and botanical microscopy, understand how the 2 fields have grown together and why all of this matters today, then this is the book for you."
    HerbalGram, 2011

    "In recent years, I have feared that the botanical microscopy of medicinal plants was going to disappear because of the lack of teachers. Those who had taught it earlier were simply dying out. ... I had no idea that Upton et al, had been working so hard and so long on a book which describes not only HOW to do botanical microscopy but WHY this is so important. I opened it with joy. This excellent book fills an urgent need to re-establish the microscope as a contributory means of assessing the identity and quality of medicinal plant raw material."
    —Roland Hardman, BPharm, BSe (Chern), Ph.D. (London), FRPharmS, Reader and Head of Pharmacognosy (Retired), School of Pharmacy & Pharmacology, University of Bath, UK

    "… an excellent historical treatment … Roy Upton, the major driver for this work, has a long history of producing botanical monographs and his work and passion for botanicals has been clear, thorough, and accurate … the major authority on the microscopic identification of crude botanical ingredients."
    —Norman R. Farnsworth, Ph.D., dr. hc (mult.), UIC Distinguished Professor, Research Professor of Pharmacognosy, University of Illinois at Chicago

    "… ideal access to the method itself and to solutions of specific problems … the AHP and its director, Roy Upton, are helping to revitalize botanical microscopy as a unique, valuable, rapid, and cost-effective assessment tool."
    —Professor Dr. Wolfgang Kubelka, Professor Emeritus, University of Vienna