An Introduction to Compressible Flow, Second Edition covers the material typical of a single-semester course in compressible flow. The book begins with a brief review of thermodynamics and control volume fluid dynamics, then proceeds to cover isentropic flow, normal shock waves, shock tubes, oblique shock waves, Prandtl-Meyer expansion fans, Fanno-line flow, Rayleigh-line flow, and conical shock waves.
The book includes a chapter on linearized flow following chapters on oblique shocks and Prandtl-Meyer flows to appropriately ground students in this approximate method. It includes detailed appendices to support problem solutions and covers new oblique shock tables, which allow for quick and accurate solutions of flows with concave corners.
The book is intended for senior undergraduate engineering students studying thermal-fluids and practicing engineers in the areas of aerospace or energy conversion. This book is also useful in providing supplemental coverage of compressible flow material in gas turbine and aerodynamics courses.
Table of Contents
Chapter 1 Introduction 1.1 Background information on gases 1.1.1 Air composition and air molecules 1.1.2 Temperature and gases 1.1.3 Pressure and gases 1.2 Control volume analysis and fundamental concepts 1.2.1 Basic laws for a system 1.2.2 Conservation of mass 1.2.3 Newton’s second law 1.2.4 Energy equation 1.2.5 Development of a generalized control volume equation 1.2.6 Conservation of mass for a control volume 1.2.7 Newton’s second law for a control volume 1.2.8 Conservation of energy for a control volume 1.2.9 The second law of thermodynamics for a control volume 1.3 Review of thermodynamics and the ideal gas model 1.3.1 The ideal gas law 1.3.2 Specific heats 1.3.3 Tds equations 1.4 References 1.5 Solved problems 1.6 Chapter 1 problems Chapter 2 Isentropic flow 2.1 Stagnation and static conditions 2.2 The speed of sound in a gas and compressible media 2.3 One-dimensional isentropic Mach number relationships 2.4 Converging nozzles 2.5 Flow in varying area ducts 2.6 Converging-diverging nozzles 2.7 References 2.8 Chapter 2 problems Chapter 3 Normal shock waves 3.1 Subsonic and supersonic flow 3.2 Normal shock wave equations 3.3 Moving shock waves and shock reflections 3.4 A brief introduction to shock tubes 3.5 References 3.6 Chapter 3 problems Chapter 4 Oblique shock waves 4.1 Oblique shock wave equations 4.1.1 Analysis of an oblique shock wave 4.2 Supersonic flow over an abrupt wedge 4.3 Supersonic inlet, exits, and airfoils 4.3.1 Oblique shocks on airfoils 4.4 Oblique shock reflections 4.5 Conical shock waves 4.6 References 4.7 Chapter 4 problems Chapter 5 An introduction to Prandtl-Meyer flow 5.1 Prandtl-Meyer expansion fans 5.2 Prandtl-Meyer flow equations 5.3 Prandtl-Meyer expansions 5.4 Prandtl-Meyer reflections 5.5 Maximum turning angle for Prandtl-Meyer flow 5.6 References 5.7 Chapter 5 problems Chapter 6 Applications 6.1 Supersonic wind tunnel startup 6.2 Oblique shock diffusers 6.3 Supersonic Airfoils 6.4 Overexpanded and underexpanded supersonic nozzles 6.5 References 6.6 Chapter 6 problems Chapter 7 Linearized flow 7.1 Introduction to linearized flow 7.2 Development of linearized pressure coefficient 7.3 Linearized flow over airfoils 7.4 Comparisons with the shock expansion method 7.5 References 7.6 Chapter 7 problems Chapter 8 Internal compressible flow with friction 8.1 Introduction to flow with friction 8.2 Analysis of Fanno-line and interpretation of flow behavior 8.3 Adiabatic flow with friction in a constant area duct 8.4 Application of adiabatic flow with friction in a constant area duct 8.5 Isothermal flow assumption 8.6 Flow with friction and area change 8.7 References 8.8 Chapter 8 problems Chapter 9 Internal compressible flow with heat addition 9.1 Introduction 9.2 Constant area frictionless flow with heat transfer 9.3 Rayleigh line analysis 9.4 Frictionless flow with heat transfer and area change 9.5 Constant area flow with heat transfer and friction 9.6 References 9.7 Chapter 9 problems Appendices: A1 Isentropic Mach Number Tables, k = 1.4 and k = 1.3 A2 Normal Shock Tables, k = 1.4 and k = 1.3 A3 Shock Tube Table, k = 1.4 and k = 1.3 A4 Oblique Shock Charts and Tables, k = 1.4 and k = 1.3 A5 Prandtl Meyer Flow Tables A6 Fanno-line flow Tables, k = 1.4 and k = 1.3 A7 Rayleigh-line flow Tables, k = 1.4 and k = 1.3
Forrest Ames has been Professor of Mechanical Engineering at the University of North Dakota (UND) for the last 22 years. Dr. Ames began his career at Allison Gas Turbine Div. of General Motors where he worked in the research laboratories. Dr. Ames has conducted research in the area of gas turbine heat transfer and aerodynamics for over 35 years. At UND, Dr. Ames is responsible for teaching in the thermal fluids area of mechanical engineering and regularly teaches classes on compressible flow, aerodynamics, gas turbines, thermodynamics, computational fluid dynamics, convective heat transfer and fluid dynamics. Dr. Ames has been a member of the Heat Transfer Committee of the International Gas Turbine Institute for over 20 years. He has been a regular contributor to ASME Turbo Expo technical sessions as author, presenter, reviewer and session organizer in the areas of turbine aerodynamics and heat transfer. He is a Fellow of the ASME. Clement Tang is an Associate Professor of Mechanical Engineering at the University of North Dakota (UND). He joined UND as a faculty member in 2011. Dr. Tang has research experience in the area of multiphase flow heat transfer and aerodynamics of thin flexible materials. He has been conducting experimental research in gas-liquid two-phase flow heat transfer for over 15 years. At UND, Dr. Tang has taught compressible flow, heat and mass transfer, heat conduction & radiation, HVAC, mechanical measurements, multiphase flow heat transfer, and thermodynamics.