An Introduction to Sonar Systems Engineering: 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

An Introduction to Sonar Systems Engineering

1st Edition

By Lawrence J. Ziomek

CRC Press

Purchasing Options:$ = USD
Hardback: 9781498778725
pub: 2016-12-21
SAVE ~$42.00
$210.00
$168.00
x
eBook (VitalSource) : 9781315282534
pub: 2017-02-24
from $105.00


FREE Standard Shipping!

Description

Written in tutorial style, this textbook discusses the fundamental topics of modern day Sonar Systems Engineering for the analysis and design of both active and passive sonar systems. Included are basic signal design for active sonar systems and understanding underwater acoustic communication signals. Mathematical theory is provided, plus practical design and analysis equations for both passive and active sonar systems. Practical homework problems are included at the end of each chapter and a solutions manual and lecture slides for each chapter are available for adopting professors.

Reviews

"I have taught underwater acoustic courses for years and I find that Professor Ziomek's style used in his other books is well liked by students. This new book continues that style and I'm certain that my students will find it an effective learning tool. "

—James H. Miller, University of Rhode Island, USA

"The book is very well written and it is very rigorously presented. I believe this will be a perfect reference for students and practitioners."

— Alessio Balleri, Cranfield University, United Kingdom

Table of Contents

Preface xiii

1 Complex Aperture Theory – Volume Apertures – General Results 1

1.1 Coupling Transmitted and Received Electrical Signals

to the Fluid Medium 1

1.1.1 Transmit Coupling Equation 1

1.1.2 Receive Coupling Equation 4

1.2 The Near-Field Beam Pattern of a Volume Aperture 6

1.2.1 Transmit Aperture 6

1.2.2 Receive Aperture 21

1.3 The Far-Field Beam Pattern of a Volume Aperture 28

1.3.1 Transmit Aperture 28

1.3.2 Receive Aperture 33

Problems 35

Appendix 1A 36

Appendix 1B Important Functions and their Units at a Transmit

and Receive Volume Aperture 39

2 Complex Aperture Theory – Linear Apertures 41

2.1 The Far-Field Beam Pattern of a Linear Aperture 41

2.2 Amplitude Windows and Corresponding Far-Field Beam Patterns 44

2.2.1 The Rectangular Amplitude Window 45

2.2.2 The Triangular Amplitude Window 48

2.2.3 The Cosine Amplitude Window 52

2.2.4 The Hanning, Hamming, and Blackman Amplitude

Windows 57

2.3 Beamwidth 63

2.4 Beam Steering 70

2.5 Beamwidth at an Arbitrary Beam-Steer Angle 73

2.6 The Near-Field Beam Pattern of a Linear Aperture 81

2.6.1 Aperture Focusing 84

2.6.2 Beam Steering and Aperture Focusing 85

Problems 86

Appendix 2A Transmitter and Receiver Sensitivity Functions

of a Continuous Line Transducer 90

Appendix 2B Radiation from a Linear Aperture 92

Appendix 2C Symmetry Properties and Far-Field Beam Patterns 98

Appendix 2D Computing the Normalization Factor 100

Appendix 2E Summary of One-Dimensional Spatial Fourier

Transforms 102

3 Complex Aperture Theory – Planar Apertures 103

3.1 The Far-Field Beam Pattern of a Planar Aperture 103

3.2 The Far-Field Beam Pattern of a Rectangular Piston 106

3.3 The Far-Field Beam Pattern of a Circular Piston 111

3.4 Beam Steering 120

3.5 The Near-Field Beam Pattern of a Planar Aperture 122

3.5.1 Beam Steering and Aperture Focusing 125

Problems 126

Appendix 3A Transmitter and Receiver Sensitivity Functions

of a Planar Transducer 129

Appendix 3B Radiation from a Planar Aperture 132

Appendix 3C Computing the Normalization Factor 138

4 Time-Average Radiated Acoustic Power 141

4.1 Directivity and Directivity Index 141

4.2 The Source Level of a Directional Sound-Source 148

Problems 154

5 Side-Looking Sonar 157

5.1 Swath Width 157

5.2 Cross-Track (Slant-Range) Resolution 163

5.3 Along-Track (Azimuthal) Resolution 165

5.4 Slant-Range Ambiguity 169

5.5 Azimuthal Ambiguity 172

5.6 A Rectangular-Piston Model for a Side-Looking Sonar 175

5.7 Design and Analysis of a Side-Looking Sonar Mission 176

5.7.1 Deep Water 176

5.7.2 Shallow Water 183

Problems 188

6 Array Theory – Linear Arrays 191

6.1 The Far-Field Beam Pattern of a Linear Array 191

6.1.1 Even Number of Elements 192

6.1.2 Odd Number of Elements 207

6.2 Common Amplitude Weights and Corresponding

Far-Field Beam Patterns 215

6.3 Dolph-Chebyshev Amplitude Weights 222

6.4 The Phased Array – Beam Steering 231

6.5 Far-Field Beam Patterns and the Spatial Discrete Fourier

Transform 235

6.5.1 Grating Lobes 239

6.6 The Near-Field Beam Pattern of a Linear Array 247

6.6.1 Beam Steering and Array Focusing 250

Problems 257

Appendix 6A Normalization Factor for the Array Factor

for N Even and Odd 261

Appendix 6B Transmitter and Receiver Sensitivity Functions

of an Omnidirectional Point-Element 264

Appendix 6C Radiation from an Omnidirectional Point-Source 266

Appendix 6D One-Dimensional Spatial FIR Filters 271

Appendix 6E Far-Field Beam Patterns and the Spatial Discrete

Fourier Transform for N Even 273

7 Array Gain 277

7.1 General Definition of Array Gain for a Linear Array 277

7.2 Acoustic Field Radiated by a Target 281

7.3 Total Output Signal from a Linear Array due to the Target 287

7.3.1 FFT Beamforming for Linear Arrays 298

7.4 Total Output Signal from a Linear Array due to

Ambient Noise and Receiver Noise 304

7.5 Evaluation of the Equation for Array Gain 307

Problems 312

Appendix 7A Attenuation Coefficient of Seawater 313

Appendix 7B Fourier Transform, Fourier Series Coefficients,

Time-Average Power, and Power Spectrum

via the DFT 315

8 Array Theory – Planar Arrays 319

8.1 The Far-Field Beam Pattern of a Planar Array 319

8.2 The Phased Array – Beam Steering 347

8.3 Far-Field Beam Patterns and the Two-Dimensional

Spatial Discrete Fourier Transform 357

8.4 The Near-Field Beam Pattern of a Planar Array 362

8.4.1 Beam Steering and Array Focusing 364

8.5 FFT Beamforming for Planar Arrays 366

Problems 375

Appendix 8A Two-Dimensional Spatial FIR Filters 378

Appendix 8B Normalization Factor for the Array Factor 379

9 Array Theory – Volume Arrays 381

9.1 The Far-Field Beam Pattern of a Cylindrical Array 381

9.1.1 The Phased Array – Beam Steering 387

9.2 The Far-Field Beam Pattern of a Spherical Array 400

9.2.1 The Phased Array – Beam Steering 404

Problems 405

10 Bistatic Scattering 409

10.1 Target Strength 409

10.2 Computing the Scattering Function of an Object 421

10.3 Direct Path 424

10.4 Sonar Equations 426

10.4.1 Scattered Path 426

10.4.2 Direct Path 437

10.5 Broadband Solutions 442

10.5.1 Scattered Path 442

10.5.2 Direct Path 446

10.6 A Statistical Model of the Scattering Function 448

10.7 Moving Platforms 456

10.7.1 Scattered Path 456

10.7.2 Direct Path 470

Problems 475

Appendix 10A Radiation from a Time-Harmonic, Omnidirectional

Point-Source 476

Appendix 10B Gradient of the Time-Independent, Free-Space,

Green’s Function 483

Appendix 10C 485

11 Real Bandpass Signals and Complex Envelopes 487

11.1 Definitions and Basic Relationships 487

11.1.1 Signal Energy and Time-Average Power 492

11.1.2 The Power Spectrum 495

11.1.3 Orthogonality Relationships 497

11.2 The Complex Envelope of an Amplitude-and-Angle-Modulated

Carrier 497

11.2.1 The Bandpass Sampling Theorem 503

11.2.2 Orthogonality Relationships 504

11.3 The Quadrature Demodulator 506

Problems 511

12 Target Detection in the Presence of Reverberation and Noise 515

12.1 A Binary Hypothesis-Testing Problem 515

12.2 The Signal-to-Interference Ratio 520

12.3 Probability of False Alarm and Decision Threshold 527

12.4 Probability of Detection and Receiver Operating Characteristic

Curves 538

Problems 553

Appendix 12A Mathematical Models of the Target Return

and Reverberation Return 554

Appendix 12B Derivation of the Denominator of the

Signal-to-Interference Ratio 565

Appendix 12C Table 12C-1 Marcum Q-Function Q(a, b) 575

Appendix 12D How to Compute Values for σ 0 σ1 577

Appendix 12E 578

13 The Auto-Ambiguity Function and Signal Design 581

13.1 The Rectangular-Envelope CW Pulse 581

13.2 The Rectangular-Envelope LFM Pulse 597

Problems 612

14 Underwater Acoustic Communication Signals 615

14.1 M-ary Frequency-Shift Keying 615

14.1.1 Time-Domain Description 615

14.1.2 Frequency Spectrum and Bandwidth 617

14.1.3 Signal Energy and Time-Average Power 619

14.1.4 Orthogonality Conditions 622

14.1.5 Demodulation 623

14.2 M-ary Quadrature Amplitude Modulation 631

14.2.1 Time-Domain Description 631

14.2.2 Frequency Spectrum and Bandwidth 639

14.2.3 Signal Energy and Time-Average Power 641

14.2.4 Demodulation 648

14.3 Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiplexing 650

14.3.1 Time-Domain Description 650

14.3.2 Frequency Spectrum and Bandwidth 651

14.3.3 Signal Energy and Time-Average Power 655

14.3.4 Demodulation 658

Problems 664

Bibliography 667

Index 671

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
TEC007000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Electrical
TEC009070
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Mechanical
TEC061000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Mobile & Wireless Communications