Anaerobic Oxidation of Methane Coupled to the Reduction of Different Sulfur Compounds as Electron Acceptors in Bioreactors: 1st Edition (Paperback) book cover

Anaerobic Oxidation of Methane Coupled to the Reduction of Different Sulfur Compounds as Electron Acceptors in Bioreactors

1st Edition

By Chiara Cassarini

CRC Press

176 pages

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Paperback: 9781138329133
pub: 2018-08-14
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Description

This research investigated new approaches to control anaerobic methane oxidation coupled to sulfate reduction (AOM-SR) and enrich anaerobic methanotrophs (ANME) and sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) with the purpose of designing a suitable bioreactor for AOM-SR at ambient pressure and temperature. The current knowledge about AOM and the microorganisms involved in AOM are discussed. The effect of different substrates and pressures was investigated on the ANME and SRB community adapted to the shallow marine Lake Grevelingen, the Netherlands. Further, microorganisms from the Alpha Mound (Spain) deep sediment were enriched with methane gas as substrate in biotrickling filters (BTF) at ambient conditions for 147-230 days of operation. The effect of alternative sulfur compounds (sulfate, thiosulfate and elemental sulfur) were studied and the microbial community was characterized. The highest AOM and sulfate reduction rates were obtained in the BTF fed with thiosulfate as the electron acceptor (~0.4 mmol l-1 day-1), but the highest number of ANME was visualized in the sulfate fed BTF (ANME-2 43% of the total visualized archaea). A BTF was proposed as a suitable bioreactor for the enrichment of ANME and SRB at ambient pressure and temperature which could be potentially used for future biotechnological applications.

Table of Contents

1 General Introduction and Thesis Outline

1.1 General introduction and problem statement

1.2 Objectives and scope of the study

1.3 Thesis outline

1.4 References

2 Physiology and Distribution of Anaerobic Oxidation of Methane (AOM) by Archaeal Methanotrophs

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Microbiology of AOM

2.3 Physiology of ANME

2.4 Drivers for the distribution of ANME in natural habitats

2.5 Ex situ enrichment of ANME

2.6 Approaches for AOM and ANME studies

2.7 Conclusion and outlook

2.8 References

3 Microbial Sulfate Reducing Activities in Anoxic Sediment from Marine Lake Grevelingen

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Material and methods

3.3 Results

3.4 Discussion

3.5 Conclusion

3.6 References

4 Pressure Sensitivity on an ANME-3 Predominant Anaerobic Methane Oxidizing Community from Coastal Marine Grevelingen Sediment

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Material and methods

4.3 Results

4.4 Discussion

4.5 Conclusions

4.6 References

5 Anaerobic Oxidation of Methane Coupled to Thiosulfate Reduction in a Biotrickling Filter

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Material and methods

5.3 Results and discussion

5.4 Conclusions

5.5 References

6 Enrichment of Anaerobic Methanotrophs in Biotrickling Filters using Different Sulfur Compounds as Electron Acceptors

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Material and methods

6.3 Results

6.4 Discussion

6.5 References

7 General Discussion and Future Perspectives

7.1 Introduction

7.2 AOM community steered by pressure and substrates used

7.3 FISH- nanometer scale secondary ion mass spectrometry (FISHNanoSIMS) analysis investigation on AOM-SR and the microorganisms involved

7.4 Future perspectives

7.5 References

Appendix 1 Supporting Information for Chapter 4

About the Author

Chiara Cassarini was born in 1987 in Bologna, Italy. She completed her bachelor (BSc) in 2010 in Industrial Chemistry at the University of Bologna (Italy) and obtained her MSc degree in Geochemistry at Utrecht University (the Netherlands). She collaborated closely with the Deltares Company in the Netherlands and with the department of Isotope Biogeochemistry in Leipzig (UFZ) Germany where she used compound-specific stable isotope analysis (CSIA) to investigate the degradation of chlorinated compounds in an industrial contaminated site. Simultaneously, during her MSc studies, she participated in a research cruise on the North Sea to investigate ocean acidification. Chiara got admitted into the Erasmus Mundus Joint Doctorate Program on Environmental Technologies for Contaminated Solids, Soils and Sediment (ETeCoS3). She started as a PhD fellow at UNESCO-IHE (Delft, the Netherlands) in 2013. Within the framework of her PhD studies, she investigated how various sulfur compounds, as electron acceptors, impact the anaerobic oxidation of methane in packed bed systems.

Chiara has started a Post-Doc in anaerobic biotechnology and process bioengineering at the National University of Ireland Galway, the research is focused on new environmental technologies designed to produce biofuel from waste.

About the Series

IHE Delft PhD Thesis Series

IHE Delft PhD programme leads to a deepening of a field of specialisation. PhD fellows do scientific research, often with conclusions that directly influence their region. At IHE Delft, PhD researchers from around the world participate in problem-focused and solution-oriented research on development issues, resulting in an inspiring research environment. PhD fellows work together with other researchers from many countries dealing with topics related to water and the environment.

PhD research is often carried out in the ‘sandwich’ model. Preparation and final reporting – the first and last portion of the programme – are carried out in Delft, while actual research is done in the fellow’s home country, under co-supervision of a local institute. Regular contacts with the promotor are maintained through visits and long-distance communication. This enables researchers to employ solutions directly to problems in their geographical region.

IHE Delft PhD degrees are awarded jointly with a university. The degrees are highly valued and fully recognised in all parts of the world.

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Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
SCI026000
SCIENCE / Environmental Science
TEC010030
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Environmental / Water Supply