Analysis and Application of Analog Electronic Circuits to Biomedical Instrumentation  book cover
2nd Edition

Analysis and Application of Analog Electronic Circuits to Biomedical Instrumentation

ISBN 9781439866696
Published March 2, 2012 by CRC Press
578 Pages 411 B/W Illustrations

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Book Description

Analysis and Application of Analog Electronic Circuits to Biomedical Instrumentation, Second Edition helps biomedical engineers understand the basic analog electronic circuits used for signal conditioning in biomedical instruments. It explains the function and design of signal conditioning systems using analog ICs—the circuits that enable ECG, EEG, EMG, ERG, tomographic images, biochemical spectrograms, and other crucial medical applications.

This book demonstrates how op amps are the keystone of modern analog signal conditioning system design and illustrates how they can be used to build instrumentation amplifiers, active filters, and many other biomedical instrumentation systems and subsystems. It introduces the mathematical tools used to describe noise and its propagation through linear systems, and it looks at how signal-to-noise ratios can be improved by signal averaging and linear filtering.


  • Analyzes the properties of photonic sensors and emitters and the circuits that power them
  • Details the design of instrumentation amplifiers and medical isolation amplifiers
  • Considers the modulation and demodulation of biomedical signals
  • Examines analog power amplifiers, including power op amps and class D (switched) PAs
  • Describes wireless patient monitoring, including Wi-Fi and Bluetooth communication protocols
  • Explores RFID, GPS, and ultrasonic tags and the design of fractal antennas
  • Addresses special analog electronic circuits and systems such as phase-sensitive rectifiers, phase detectors, and IC thermometers

By explaining the "building blocks" of biomedical systems, the author illustrates the importance of signal conditioning systems in the devices that gather and monitor patients’ critical medical information. Fully revised and updated, this second edition includes new chapters, a glossary, and end-of-chapter problems.

What’s New in This Edition

  • Updated and revised material throughout the book
  • A chapter on the applications, circuits, and characteristics of power amplifiers
  • A chapter on wireless patient monitoring using UHF telemetry
  • A chapter on RFID tags, GPS tags, and ultrasonic tags
  • A glossary to help you decode the acronyms and terms used in biomedical electronics, physiology, and biochemistry
  • New end-of-chapter problems and examples

Table of Contents

All chapters include an introduction and chapter summary.

Sources and Properties of Biomedical Signals
Sources of Endogenous Bioelectric Signals
Nerve Action Potentials
Muscle Action Potentials
The Electrocardiogram
Other Biopotentials
Electrical Properties of Bioelectrodes
Exogenous Bioelectric Signals

Properties and Models of Semiconductor Devices Used in Analog Electronic Systems
pn Junction Diodes
Midfrequency Models for BJT Behavior
Midfrequency Models for Field-Effect Transistors
High-Frequency Models for Transistors and Simple Transistor Amplifiers
Photons, Photodiodes, Photoconductors, LEDs, and Laser Diodes

The Differential Amplifier
DA Circuit Architecture
Common-Mode Rejection Ratio
CM and DM Gain of Simple DA Stages at High Frequencies
Input Resistance of Simple Transistor DAs
How Signal Source Impedance Affects the Low-Frequency CMRR
How Op Amps Can be Used to Make DAs for Medical Applications

General Properties of Electronic, Single-Loop Feedback Systems

Classification of Electronic Feedback Systems
Some Effects of Negative Voltage Feedback
Effects of Negative Current Feedback
Positive Voltage Feedback

Feedback, Frequency Response, and Amplifier Stability

Review of Amplifier Frequency Response
What Is Meant by Feedback System Stability
The Use of Root Locus in Feedback Amplifier Design
Use of Root-Locus in the Design of "Linear" Oscillators

Operational Amplifiers and Comparators
The Ideal Op Amp
Practical Op Amps
Gain-Bandwidth Relations for Voltage-Feedback OAs
Gain-Bandwidth Relations in Current Feedback Amplifiers
Analog Voltage Comparators
Some Applications of Op Amps in Biomedicine

Introduction to Analog Active Filters
Active Filter Applications
Types of Analog Active Filters
Electronically Tunable AFs

Instrumentation and Medical Isolation Amplifiers
Instrumentation Amps
Medical Isolation Amps
Safety Standards in Medical Electronic Amplifiers
Medical-Grade Power Supplies

Noise and the Design of Low-Noise Signal Conditioning Systems for
Biomedical Applications
Descriptors of Random Noise in Biomedical Measurement Systems
Propagation of Noise Through LTI Filters
Noise Factor and Figure of Amplifiers
Cascaded Noisy Amplifiers
Noise in Differential Amplifiers
Effect of Feedback on Noise
Examples of Noise-Limited Resolution of Certain Signal Conditioning Systems
Some Low-Noise Amplifiers
The Art of Low-Noise Signal Conditioning System Design

Digital Interfaces

Aliasing and the Sampling Theorem
Digital-to-Analog Converters
Sample-and-Hold Circuits
Analog-to-Digital Converters
Quantization Noise

Modulation and Demodulation of Biomedical Signals

Modulation of a Sinusoidal Carrier Viewed in the Frequency Domain
Implementation of AM
Generation of Phase and Frequency Modulation
Demodulation of Modulated Sinusoidal Carriers
Modulation and Demodulation of Digital Carriers

Power Amplifiers and Their Applications in Biomedicine

Power Output Devices
Classes of Power Amplifiers: PA Efficiency
Class D Power Amplifiers
Nonlinearity and Distortion in PAs
IC Voltage Regulators in Medical Electronic Systems

Wireless Patient Monitoring
Sensors and Sensor Signals Communicated in WPM
Modulation in WPM
RF Communications Protocols Used in WPM
UHF Transmitters and Antennas
WPM Systems
How WPM Reduces the Probability of Patient Microshock
Privacy in WPM

RFID Tags, GPS Tags, and Ultrasonic Tags Used in Ecological Research

Applications of RFID Tags
Design of RFID Tags
Tag Readers
GPS Tags
Ultrasonic Tags in Fisheries Biology

Examples of Special Analog Circuits and Systems Used in Biomedical Instrumentation

The Phase-Sensitive Rectifier
Phase Detectors
Voltage and Current-Controlled Oscillators
Phase-Lock Loops
True RMS Converters
IC Temperature Sensors
Three Examples of Medical Instrumentation Systems


Bibliography and Recommended Reading

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Robert B. Northrop is Professor Emeritus and the former Program Director of the Biomedical Engineering Graduate Program at the University of Connecticut.