Effective measurement of the composition and properties of petroleum is essential for its exploration, production, and refining; however, new technologies and methodologies are not adequately documented in much of the current literature. Analytical Methods in Petroleum Upstream Applications explores advances in the analytical methods and instrumentation that allow more accurate determination of the components, classes of compounds, properties, and features of petroleum and its fractions.
Recognized experts explore a host of topics, including:
- A petroleum molecular composition continuity model as a context for other analytical measurements
- A modern modular sampling system for use in the lab or the process area to collect and control samples for subsequent analysis
- The importance of oil-in-water measurements and monitoring
- The chemical and physical properties of heavy oils, their fractions, and products from their upgrading
- Analytical measurements using gas chromatography and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) applications
- Asphaltene and heavy ends analysis
- Chemometrics and modeling approaches for understanding petroleum composition and properties to improve upstream, midstream, and downstream operations
Due to the renaissance of gas and oil production in North America, interest has grown in analytical methods for a wide range of applications. The understanding provided in this text is designed to help chemists, geologists, and chemical and petroleum engineers make more accurate estimates of the crude value to specific refinery configurations, providing insight into optimum development and extraction schemes.
Table of Contents
Petroleum Molecular Composition Continuity Model
Mieczyslaw M. Boduszynski
Process and Laboratory Sampling for Analytical Systems: Similarities and Subtle Differences
William M. Cost
Advances in Oil-in-Water Monitoring Technology
Darrell L. Gallup
Characterization of Athabasca and Arabian Light Vacuum Residues and Their Thermally Cracked Products: Implications of the Structural Information on Adsorption over Solid Surfaces
Francisco Lopez-Linares, Mazin M. Fathi, Lante Carbognani Ortega, Azfar Hassan, Pedro Pereira-Almao, Estrella Rogel, Cesar Ovalles, Ajit Pradhan, and John Zintsmaster
Analysis of Olefins in Heavy Oil, Bitumen, and Their Upgraded Products
Lante Carbognani Ortega, Francisco Lopez-Linares, Qiao Wu, Marianna Trujillo, Josune Carbognani, and Pedro Pereira-Almao
Advances in Gas Chromatography for Petroleum Upstream, Refining, Petrochemical, and Related Environmental Applications
Carl E. Rechsteiner Jr., John Crandall, and Ned Roques
Application of NMR Technology in Petroleum Exploration and Characterization
Zheng Yang, Ajit Pradhan, John Zintsmaster, and Boqin Sun
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Upstream Applications: Crude Oil Characterization, Water-Oil Interface Behavior, and Porous Media
Teresa E. Lehmann and Vladimir Alvarado
HEAVY ENDS AND ASPHALTENES
On-Column Filtration Asphaltene Characterization Methods for the Analysis of Produced Crude Oils and Deposits from Upstream Operations
Estrella Rogel, Cesar Ovalles, and Michael E. Moir
Asphaltene Adsorption on Iron Oxide Surfaces
Estrella Rogel and Michael Roye
Determination of Asphaltenes Using Microfluidics
Farshid Mostowfi and Vincent Sieben
MODELING AND CHEMOMETRICS
Application of Data Fusion for Enhanced Understanding and Control
Thomas I. Dearing, Rachel Mohler, Carl E. Rechsteiner Jr., and Brian J. Marquardt
Application of Computer Simulations to Surfactant Chemical Enhanced Oil Recovery
Jan-Willem Handgraaf, Kunj Tandon, Shekhar Jain, Marten Buijse, and Johannes G.E.M. Fraaije
Understanding the Molecular Information Contained in the Infrared Spectra of Colombian Vacuum Residua by Principal Component Analysis
Jorge A. Orrego-Ruiz, Daniel Molina, Enrique Mejía-Ospino, and Alexander Guzmán
Cesar Ovalles is Technical Team Leader at Chevron Energy Technology Company located in Richmond, California. He has a B.Sc. in Chemistry from Simon Bolivar University and Ph.D. in the same field from Texas A&M University. He worked for 16 years at Petróleos de Venezuela Sociedad Anónima-Instituto de Tecnología Venezolano del Petróleo (PDVSA–INTEVEP). In 2006, he joined Chevron to work in R&D in Petroleum Chemistry and characterization of heavy and extra-heavy Crude Oils and their fractions. He is also involved in new methods for analysis of asphaltenes and in R&D in the chemistry of heavy and extra-heavy crude oil upgrading processes.
Carl Rechsteiner is the owner of CRechsteiner Consulting LLC in Petaluma, California, providing petroleum composition and measurement advice to industry. Following a four-year stint with Arthur D. Little Inc., Dr. Rechsteiner joined Chevron Research Company in Richmond, California, where he spent the next 31 years in a number of roles involving numerous measurement technologies for elucidating petroleum compositions. He managed many research and development projects that developed and implemented measurement technologies (especially in the chromatographic and spectroscopic sciences) across Chevron’s Global Downstream laboratory organization, and created an infrastructure to support data-rich process analyzers within Chevron’s operations.
Featured Author Profiles
"Chapters 5, 7, and 8 describe the use of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) for the analysis of crude oil and the heavy end fractions. These chapters are excellent and show how much NMR has advanced and is now of wide application including downhole monitoring."
—Edward R. Adlard, Burton, South Wirral, UK, from Chromatographia (2015) 78:1421-1422
"Analytical Methods in Petroleum Upstream Applications is an excellent book covering more than exploration and production. This work is as valuable to the earth scientist and petroleum engineer as it is to the geochemist and analytical chemist. It provides measurement tools to develop a basic understanding of critical characterization issues. The book is a valuable addition to the analytical literature of the petroleum industry."
—Dr. Al Verstuyft, Al Verstuyft Consulting LLC, Napa, California
"Analytical Methods in Petroleum Upstream Applications is an exceptional addition to the body of literature for petroleum exploration and production, discussing sampling systems, oil-in-water measurement, characterization of heavy oil fractions, asphaltenes, as well as application of NMR, gas chromatography and chemometrics. It provides value to both the novice seeking an introduction to some of the challenges faced by the field, as well as the experienced practitioner looking for recent advances and deeper insights. This book is an essential addition to any earth scientist or production engineer’s library."
—Dr. Rob Lorenz, Chevron ETC, Richmond, California
"Analytical Methods in Petroleum Upstream Applications comes as a long-time desired guide to understand the complexity of petroleum chemical composition. The approach used by the editors is broad enough as to provide professionals throughout the oil industry value chain with a comprehensive vision of hydrocarbons chemistry. Furthermore, the academic style of the content makes it a valuable reference to be used in advance courses dealing with petroleum chemistry. In summary, this book is a must in the bookshelf of a scientist or engineer related to the petroleum industry."
—Dr. Adriano Parisi, Retired Professor, Simon Bolivar University, Caracas, Venezuela