Ancient Civilizations offers a comprehensive and straightforward account of the world’s first civilizations and how they were discovered, drawing on many avenues of inquiry including archaeological excavations, surveys, laboratory work, highly specialized scientific investigations, and both historical and ethnohistorical records. This book covers the earliest civilizations and the great powers in the Near East, moving on to the first Aegean civilizations, the Mediterranean world in the first millennium, Imperial Rome, northeast Africa, the divine kings in southeast Asia, and empires in East Asia, as well as early states in the Americas and Andean civilization.
Ancient Civilizations includes a number of features to support student learning: a wealth of images, including several new illustrations; feature boxes which expand on key sites, finds and written sources; and an extensive guide to further reading. With new perceptions of the origin and collapse of states, including a review of the issue of sustainability, this fourth edition has been extensively updated in the light of spectacular new discoveries and the latest theoretical advances.
Examining the world’s pre-industrial civilizations from a multidisciplinary perspective and offering a comparative analysis of the field which explores the connections between all civilizations around the world, Scarre and Fagan, both established authorities on world prehistory, provide a valuable introduction to pre-industrial civilizations in all their brilliant diversity.
PART I BACKGROUND
CHAPTER 1 THE STUDY OF CIVILIZATION
CHAPTER 2 THEORIES OF STATES
PART II THE FIRST CIVILIZATIONS
CHAPTER 3 MESOPOTAMIA: THE FIRST CITIES (3500–2000 B.C.)
CHAPTER 4 EGYPTIAN CIVILIZATION
CHAPTER 5 SOUTH ASIA: HARAPPAN AND LATER CIVILIZATIONS
CHAPTER 6 THE FIRST CHINESE CIVILIZATIONS
PART III GREAT POWERS IN THE NEAR EAST
CHAPTER 7 NEAR EASTERN KINGDOMS (2000–1200 B.C.)
CHAPTER 8 THE NEAR EAST IN THE FIRST MILLENNIUM B.C.
PART IV THE MEDITERRANEAN WORLD
CHAPTER 9 THE FIRST AEGEAN CIVILIZATIONS
CHAPTER 10 THE MEDITERRANEAN WORLD IN THE FIRST MILLENNIUM (1000–30 B.C.)
CHAPTER 11 IMPERIAL ROME
PART V NORTHEAST AFRICA AND ASIA
CHAPTER 12 NORTHEAST AFRICA: KUSH, MEROE, AND AKSUM
CHAPTER 13 DIVINE KINGS IN SOUTHEAST ASIA
CHAPTER 14 KINGDOMS AND EMPIRES IN EAST ASIA (770 B.C.–A.D. 700)
PART VI EARLY STATES IN THE AMERICAS
CHAPTER 15 LOWLAND MESOAMERICA
CHAPTER 16 HIGHLAND MESOAMERICA
CHAPTER 17 THE FOUNDATIONS OF ANDEAN CIVILIZATION
CHAPTER 18 ANDEAN STATES
CHAPTER 19 EPILOGUE