Applied Survey Data Analysis (Hardback) book cover

Applied Survey Data Analysis

By Steven G. Heeringa, Brady T. West, Patricia A. Berglund

© 2010 – Chapman and Hall/CRC

487 pages | 53 B/W Illus.

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About the Book

Taking a practical approach that draws on the authors’ extensive teaching, consulting, and research experiences, Applied Survey Data Analysis provides an intermediate-level statistical overview of the analysis of complex sample survey data. It emphasizes methods and worked examples using available software procedures while reinforcing the principles and theory that underlie those methods.

After introducing a step-by-step process for approaching a survey analysis problem, the book presents the fundamental features of complex sample designs and shows how to integrate design characteristics into the statistical methods and software for survey estimation and inference. The authors then focus on the methods and models used in analyzing continuous, categorical, and count-dependent variables; event history; and missing data problems. Some of the techniques discussed include univariate descriptive and simple bivariate analyses, the linear regression model, generalized linear regression modeling methods, the Cox proportional hazards model, discrete time models, and the multiple imputation analysis method. The final chapter covers new developments in survey applications of advanced statistical techniques, including model-based analysis approaches.

Designed for readers working in a wide array of disciplines who use survey data in their work, this book also provides a useful framework for integrating more in-depth studies of the theory and methods of survey data analysis. A guide to the applied statistical analysis and interpretation of survey data, it contains many examples and practical exercises based on major real-world survey data sets. Although the authors use Stata for most examples in the text, they offer SAS, SPSS, SUDAAN, R, WesVar, IVEware, and Mplus software code for replicating the examples on the book’s website:


the authors do an admirable job of striking a balance between statistical theory and practical advice and analysis. The authors provide excellent coverage of each aspect of the survey analysis process … This book is an excellent general resource and if the reader is left wanting on a topic the authors never fail to provide an ample set of citations and references to a wide variety of notable texts on the topic in question. … an excellent and helpful addition to the desk of any analyst, researcher, or student with a general background in statistics who is dealing with the special challenges and demands of complex survey data.

—Gregory Holyk, Journal of Official Statistics, Vol. 27, 2011

Overall, the book is clearly written and easy to follow, and well equipped with real data examples and a book website. The program codes used in the example are also available, mostly written in Stata. I like the presentations with real survey examples and, in particular, the unified four-step approach to the regression analysis in different models. Anyone working on survey data analysis would find the book very helpful and instructive. The book website seems to be a good complement, with additional resources on this book.

—Jae-Kwang Kim, The American Statistician, November 2011

The book is well-written by authors who have over 60 years of combined teaching and consultation experience in survey methodology and research techniques. It is excellent for reference, with 12 structured chapters coherently organised, providing intermediate-level statistical overview of techniques used in analysing complex survey data. … It provides analysts with a framework of how to plan and conduct analysis of survey data, familiarise with terminologies used and understand common complex sample design features of clustering, stratification and weighting. … it is an excellent reference book for Stata users and the accompanying website provides useful resources and updated information. I feel that the book seamlessly links theory with practical applications of the statistical methods and helps the reader to develop an understanding of the framework of thinking required to effectively analyse complex survey data sets. …

—E.C. Abraham, AQMeNtion Newsletter, April 2011

… there is a wealth of instruction here. The writing style is expansive, keeping mathematics in check, and the material is well organized clearly into appropriate sections. I think that the book would serve any budding survey practitioner well: armed with the knowledge and practical skills covered herein, plus some real-life experience of course, one could reasonably claim to be well qualified in the subject.

International Statistical Review (2010), 78, 3

Table of Contents

Applied Survey Data Analysis: Overview


A Brief History of Applied Survey Data Analysis

Example Data Sets and Exercises

Getting to Know the Complex Sample Design


Classification of Sample Designs

Target Populations and Survey Populations

Simple Random Sampling: A Simple Model for Design-Based Inference

Complex Sample Design Effects

Complex Samples: Clustering and Stratification

Weighting in Analysis of Survey Data

Multistage Area Probability Sample Designs

Special Types of Sampling Plans Encountered in Surveys

Foundations and Techniques for Design-Based Estimation and Inference


Finite Populations and Superpopulation Models

Confidence Intervals for Population Parameters

Weighted Estimation of Population Parameters

Probability Distributions and Design-Based Inference

Variance Estimation

Hypothesis Testing in Survey Data Analysis

Total Survey Error and Its Impact on Survey Estimation and Inference

Preparation for Complex Sample Survey Data Analysis


Analysis Weights: Review by the Data User

Understanding and Checking the Sampling Error Calculation Model

Addressing Item Missing Data in Analysis Variables

Preparing to Analyze Data for Sample Subpopulations

A Final Checklist for Data Users

Descriptive Analysis for Continuous Variables


Special Considerations in Descriptive Analysis of Complex Sample Survey Data

Simple Statistics for Univariate Continuous Distributions

Bivariate Relationships between Two Continuous Variables

Descriptive Statistics for Subpopulations

Linear Functions of Descriptive Estimates and Differences of Means


Categorical Data Analysis


A Framework for Analysis of Categorical Survey Data

Univariate Analysis of Categorical Data

Bivariate Analysis of Categorical Data

Analysis of Multivariate Categorical Data


Linear Regression Models


The Linear Regression Model

Four Steps in Linear Regression Analysis

Some Practical Considerations and Tools

Application: Modeling Diastolic Blood Pressure with the NHANES Data


Logistic Regression and Generalized Linear Models (GLMs) for Binary Survey Variables


GLMs for Binary Survey Responses

Building the Logistic Regression Model: Stage 1, Model Specification

Building the Logistic Regression Model: Stage 2, Estimation of Model Parameters and Standard Errors

Building the Logistic Regression Model: Stage 3, Evaluation of the Fitted Model

Building the Logistic Regression Model: Stage 4, Interpretation and Inference

Analysis Application

Comparing the Logistic, Probit, and Complementary Log-Log GLMs for Binary Dependent Variables


GLMs for Multinomial, Ordinal, and Count Variables


Analyzing Survey Data Using Multinomial Logit

Regression Models

Logistic Regression Models for Ordinal Survey Data

Regression Models for Count Outcomes


Survival Analysis of Event History Survey Data


Basic Theory of Survival Analysis

(Nonparametric) Kaplan–Meier Estimation of the Survivor Function

Cox Proportional Hazards Model

Discrete Time Survival Models


Multiple Imputation: Methods and Applications for Survey Analysts


Important Missing Data Concepts

An Introduction to Imputation and the Multiple Imputation Method

Models for Multiply Imputing Missing Data

Creating the Imputations

Estimation and Inference for Multiply Imputed Data

Applications to Survey Data


Advanced Topics in the Analysis of Survey Data


Bayesian Analysis of Complex Sample Survey Data

Generalized Linear Mixed Models (GLMMs) in Survey Data Analysis

Fitting Structural Equation Models to Complex Sample Survey Data

Small Area Estimation and Complex Sample Survey Data

Nonparametric Methods for Complex Sample Survey Data


Appendix: Software Overview

About the Authors

Steve G. Heeringa is a research scientist in the Survey Methodology Program, the director of the Statistical and Research Design Group in the Survey Research Center, and the director of the Summer Institute in Survey Research Techniques at the University of Michigan’s Institute for Social Research.

Brady T. West is a doctoral student and research assistant in the Survey Research Center at the University of Michigan’s Institute for Social Research. He is also a statistical consultant in the Center for Statistical Consultation and Research.

Patricia A. Berglund is a senior research associate in the Youth and Social Indicators Program and Survey Methodology Program in the Survey Research Center at the University of Michigan’s Institute for Social Research.

About the Series

Chapman & Hall/CRC Statistics in the Social and Behavioral Sciences

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Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
MATHEMATICS / Probability & Statistics / General