For the previous 6 years before publication, Office of Naval Research (ONR) had been conducting a thematically oriented contract research program aimed, in large part, at developing the kind of broad theoretical framework necessary for a workable process interpretation of aptitude, learning, and performance. Originally published in 1980, the papers in this collection are generally addressed to three broad areas that were central to those interests of the ONR Personnel and Training Research Programs. One area is concerned with individual differences information processing, as revealed in simple laboratory or psychometric tests. The second area focuses on the structural aspects of learning and performance, using tools and concepts from semantic memory theory to describe what is learned and how it is learned. And the third area is aimed at the management of instruction: It addresses itself to the kinds of research and instructional designs required for effective implementation of adaptive instruction.
Foreword. Acknowledgements. 1. Adaptive Instruction: Trends and Issues Pat-Anthony Federico 2. Aptitude Processes Richard E. Snow 3. Information-Processing Abilities Andrew M. Rose 4. The Foundations of Verbal Comprehension Earl Hunt 5. Component Skills in Reading: Measurement of Individual Differences Through Chronometric Analysis John R. Frederiksen 6. Discussion: Aptitude Processes, Theory, and the Real World John B. Carroll 7. Spatial Information Processing: Strategies for Research Lynn A. Cooper 8. Components of Inductive Reasoning James E. Pellegrino and Robert Glaser 9. Deductive Reasoning Robert J. Sternberg, Martin J. Guyote, and Margaret E. Turner 10. A Cognitive-Style Approach to Metaphoric Thinking Nathan Kogan 11. Discussion: Maps, Models, Methods, and Metaphors Richard E. Snow 12. Independent Process Analyses of Aptitude-Treatment Interactions Robert C. Calfee and Larry V. Hedges 13. Cognitive Learning Strategies and Dualities in Information Processing Joseph W. Rigney. Author Index. Subject Index.