Aquatic Chemistry Concepts, Second Edition
Aquatic Chemistry Concepts, Second Edition, is a fully revised and updated textbook that fills the need for a comprehensive treatment of aquatic chemistry and covers the many complicated equations and principles of aquatic chemistry. It presents the established science of equilibrium water chemistry using the uniquely recognizable, step-by-step Pankow format, which allows a broad and deep understanding of aquatic chemistry. The text is appropriate for a wide audience, including undergraduate and graduate students, industry professionals, consultants, and regulators. Every professional using water chemistry will want this text within close reach, and students and professionals alike will expect to find at least one copy on their library shelves.
- Extremely thorough, one-of-a-kind treatment of aquatic chemistry which considers: a) chemical thermodynamics fundamentals; b) acid/base, titration, and buffer calculations; c) CO2 chemistry and alkalinity; d) complexation of metal ions by ligands and chelates; e) mineral solubility processes; f) redox chemistry, including the chemistry of chlorine (as in disinfection), oxygen, CO2 and methane, nitrogen, sulfur, iron, and lead, including the story of lead in the drinking water of Flint, Michigan; and g) electrical effects in aqueous solutions including the Debye-Hückel Law (and related equations for activity corrections), double layers, and colloid stability
- Discussions of how to carry out complex calculations regarding the chemistry of lakes, rivers, groundwater, and seawater
- Numerous example problems worked in complete detail
- Special foreword by Jerry L. Schnoor
'There’s a lot to like about a book on water chemistry that lays it out simply. Einstein said that everything should be as simple as it can be, but not simpler. Wise advice. And that is what James F. Pankow has accomplished in the second edition of his textbook, Aquatic Chemistry Concepts. It covers the “waterfront” of essential inorganic chemistry topics, and it supplies enough examples to lead the student toward problem solving.'
-From the Foreword, Jerry L. Schnoor
Part I: Introduction
Foreword by Jerry L. Schnoor
2. Thermodynamic Principles
Part II: Acid/Base Chemistry
3. The Proton (H+) in Aquatic Chemistry
4. The Electroneutrality Equation, Mass Balance Equations, and the Proton Balance Equation
5. Quantitative Acid/Base Calculations for Any Solution of Acids and Bases
6. Dependence of α Values on pH, and the Role of Net Strong Base
7. Titrations of Acids and Bases
8. Buffer Intensity β
9. Chemistry of Dissolved CO2
Part III: Metal/Ligand Chemistry
10. Complexation of Metal Ions by Ligands
Part IV: Mineral Solubility
11. Simple Salts and Metal Oxides/Hydroxides/Oxyhydroxides
12. Solubility Behavior of Calcium Carbonate and Other Divalent Metal Carbonates in Closed and Open Systems
13. Metal Phosphates
14. Which Solid Is Solubility Limiting? Examples with Fe(II) for FeCO3(s) vs. Fe(OH)2(s) Using Log pCO2 vs. pH Predominance Diagrams
15. The Kelvin Effect: The Effect of Particle Size on Dissolution and Evaporation Equilibria
16. Solid/Solid and Liquid/Liquid Solution Mixtures
Part V: Redox Chemistry
17. Redox Reactions, EH, and pe
18. Introduction to pe–pH Diagrams: The Cases of Aqueous Chlorine, Hydrogen, and Oxygen
19. pe–pH Diagrams for Lead (Pb) with Negligible Dissolved CO2
20. pe–pH Diagrams for Lead (Pb) in the Presence of CO2 with Fixed CT, and Fixed CT and Phosphate
21. pe and Natural Systems
22. Redox Succession (Titration) in a Stratified Lake during a Period of Summer Stagnation
Part VI: Effects of Electrical Charges on Solution Chemistry
23. The Debye–Huckel Equation and Its Descendent Expressions for Activity Coefficients of Aqueous Ions
24. Electrical Double Layers in Aqueous Systems
25. Colloid Stability and Particle Double Layers
There’s a lot to like about a book on water chemistry that lays it out simply. Einstein said that everything should be as simple as it can be, but not simpler. Wise advice. And that is what James F. Pankow has accomplished in the second edition of his textbook, Aquatic Chemistry Concepts. It covers the “waterfront” of essential inorganic chemistry topics, and it supplies enough examples to lead the student toward problem solving.
Pankow appropriately begins in the Introduction (Part I) with definitions and the theoretical basis for solving chemical equilibrium problems—thermodynamics. Part II of the book on Acid/Base Chemistry is a tour de force, from mass balances to the chemistry of dissolved carbon dioxide. Pankow’s Aunt Fatima injects humor along the way, and flashbacks from his college chemistry instructors are especially pertinent. Acid/base examples from household vinegar to ammonia illuminate the path, while “Geek Optional” boxes lend additional insight. I especially enjoyed Chapter 9, which includes problems on acid rain, acidification of lakes, and “the most worrisome” example of all, ocean acidification.
When Professor Pankow published the first edition of Aquatic Chemistry Concepts in 1991, the global atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide, a weak acid, stood at 354 parts per million (ppm). Today it is 415 ppm, a 17% increase in concentration in less than 30 years. Likewise, the pH of the surface of the ocean off Hawaii has declined from 8.12 to 8.05 – meaning a similar 17% increase in H+ concentration (see Example 9.13). Imagine … we have increased [H+] in the ocean, the base of the food chain for all aquatic life, by 17% in one generation. Aquatic chemistry concepts don’t lie.
We have known since 1862 and John Tyndall’s famous experiments that CO2 absorbs back radiation and heats the atmosphere. Our real-life planetary experiment verifies the physics every year, and the average global temperature is now 0.5 °C (0.9 °F) warmer than when the first edition was published. If we fail to rein in our fossil fuel emissions of CO2 and other greenhouse gases, the signal will continue to grow ever hotter in coming decades. This textbook teaches an urgent lesson. Today, all the “master variables” that control aquatic chemistry are changing—pH, temperature, salinity, and oxidation-reduction potential. Part III explains Metal/Ligand Chemistry, and Part IV discusses the topic of Mineral Solubility. Changing ocean salinity, temperature, and pH render all these reactions in a state of planetary flux. Even the quality of our drinking water is subject to change as the master variables change. Fortunately, foundational concepts in Pankow’s book allow us to make the relevant calculations.
Part V on Redox Chemistry and Part VI on Effects of Electrical Charges on Solution Chemistry further elucidate systems that are strong functions of the changing state variables of pe and pH. Although some of the most difficult chemical concepts are contained in these final chapters, Pankow lays them bare—as simple as possible, but not simpler.
In the Preface to Aquatic Chemical Concepts, 1st Edition, Pankow warned, “The scope of local, regional, and global environmental problems seems to grow with each passing day. We are in a race which we do not wish to lose.” That was certainly true in 1991, and it is even more cogent today. Our list of environmental nightmares is enduring and growing—climate change, toxic chemicals, eutrophication, harmful algal blooms, and unsafe drinking water. This book, the 2nd Edition, is an advance in stating the problems simply so we can analyze them quantitatively. Only then can we effect change.
-Jerald L. Schnoor, Foreword to the Second Edition