For over 50 years, the white radomes of the Teufelsberg have been one of Berlin’s most prominent landmarks. For half of this time the city lay over 100 miles behind an 'Iron Curtain' that divided East from West, and was surrounded by communist East Germany and the densest concentration of Warsaw Pact military forces in Europe. From the vantage point high on the Teufelsberg, British and American personnel constantly monitored the electronic emissions from the surrounding military forces, as well as high-level political intelligence. Today, the Teufelsberg stands as a contemporary and spectacular ruin, representing a significant relic of a lost cyber space of Cold War electronic emissions and espionage. Based on archaeological fieldwork and recently declassified documents, this book presents a new history of the Teufelsberg and other Western intelligence gathering sites in Berlin. At a time when intelligence gathering is once more under close scrutiny, when questions are being asked about the intelligence relationship between the United States and Russia, and amidst wider debate about the US’s National Security Agency (NSA) intelligence programmes, sites like the Teufelsberg raise questions that appear both important and timely.
Table of Contents
List of Contents
List of Figures
Introduction: Berlin becomes the Cold War espionage capital
Electronic intelligence gathering: Beginnings
RAF 26 Signals Unit
Hangar 4 RAF Gatow
British army units
Rocking Horse - Training for war
Block 87 or Inscom Site 4 - inset box
The watched watch the watchers
From Context to the Site Itself
The Teufelsberg, History and Context
The city and the mound
Late 1960s to early 1970s
United States units based at the Teufelsberg
Principal United States Air Force electronic surveillance units in Berlin
RAF signals units at RAF Gatow
Technical equipment used at RAF Gatow and the Teufelsberg
Archaeological Investigation: Methods and Approaches
Archaeologies of the Cold War
The main gate
The eastern compound
The operational facilities – security and entry control
1437A Communications building
1469 Document destruction building
1425 The Artic tower
1465 Jambalaya tower
1455 The British building, Building M
1475 Teufelsberg II, Building U
The upper British floor
The lower United States floor
1458 Main operations building
1453 Dining Facility
Architectural Summary and Overview
Wayne D Cocroft is an archaeologist and manager of Historic England’s Historic Places Investigation Team East based in Cambridge. For over 25 years he has specialised in the investigation and assessment of former military sites, including explosives factories and Cold War research and development establishments. His published works include Dangerous Energy: the archaeology of gunpowder and military explosives manufacture, and he has also co-authored Cold War: building for nuclear confrontation 1946–1989, War Art murals and graffiti – military life, power and subversion. He is a Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries of London and a Member of the Chartered Institute for Archaeologists.
John Schofield was, until recently, Head of the Department of Archaeology at the University of York, where he is also Director of Studies in Cultural Heritage Management, having previously worked for English Heritage. John is a Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries of London, a Member of the Chartered Institute for Archaeologists and a Docent in Cultural Heritage, Landscape and Contemporary Archaeology at the University of Turku (Finland). He is also Senior Research Fellow at Flinders University, Adelaide, and an Adjunct Professor at Griffith University, both in Australia. He has published extensively in the fields of cultural heritage, archaeology of the recent and contemporary pasts, and the archaeology of conflict. As a child, John lived in Berlin (1971–1973) where his father was Officer Commanding 26 Signals Unit, based both at RAF Gatow and at the Teufelsberg.
"Through this detailed archaeological investigation of Teufelsberg, one of the most iconic sites of the Cold War, many of its well kept secrets are revealed. The material remains bear witness not only to the facilities housing the cutting-edge technology of a past era, but also give a glimpse of the everyday life of the many men and women that served there. This innovative study clearly shows the potential of contemporary archaeology to uncover hitherto unknown aspects of the recent past and may serve as a blue-print for future studies of secret installations."
Mats Burström, Stockholm University
"An engagingly written and well-illustrated study of an iconic site of twentieth century conflict heritage, and a valuable contribution to the rich literature on the ruins, relics and remains of Berlin. It will be of interest and value to heritage professionals, scholars of espionage and the Cold War, and urban explorers and others fascinated by the material traces of the recent past."
Dr Gabriel Moshenska, UCL Institute of Archaeology
"Visible from afar, the white radomes of the Teufelsberg have always marked the most intriguing Cold War site in Berlin. This book lifts the veil of secrecy that shrouded this installation for decades, takes the reader back in time to the direct confrontation between the West and the East that characterised Berlin, and discusses the many layers of cultural significance embodied in the place."
Professor Leo Schmidt, Brandenburg University of Technology Cottbus
"The authors have, however, instituted an archaeological investigation of this one-layered site where, for example, floor markings would indicate the possible types of equipment in use in particular rooms. Despite the vandalism the site remains substantially intact and can be ‘read’. Something of a detective story, a fascinating study of an unusual military monument in a dangerous time and in an ultra-sensitive situation."
Bernard Lowry, Casemate