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Arctic and Alpine Environments




ISBN 9780367352516
Published October 6, 2019 by Routledge
1066 Pages

 
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Book Description

Originally published in 1974, Arctic and Alpine Environments examines, the relatively simple ecosystems of arctic and alpine lands that still occupy extensive areas little disturbed by modern technology. The book argues that there is a necessity for carefully controlled development of the resources of these regions and suggests that there is a risk of irreversible disturbance without full understanding of these regions. This book provides a detailed documentation of cold-stressed arctic and alpine terrestrial environments and systematically deals with the present and past physical environment – climate, hydrology and glaciology; biota – treeline, vegetation, vertebrate zoology, and historical biogeography; abiotic processes – geomorphological and pedological and the role of man – bioclimatology, archaeology and technological impact, including radioecology. The book will appeal to academics and students of environmental and biological science, as well as providing a significant source for conservationists’, government agencies and industrial organizations.

Table of Contents

List of Plates

Acknowledgements

Preface

1. Introduction, Roger G. Barry and Jack D. Ives

Part I: Present Environments

2. Climate

2a. Arctic Climate, Roger G. Barry and F. Kenneth Hare

2b. Contribution to the Comparative Meteorology of Mountain Area, Hermann Flohn

2c. Topo-and Microclimatology in Alpine Areas, Roger G. Barry and Claudia C. Van Wie

2d. Snow, Donald Alford

3. Hydrology,

3a. Arctic Hydrology, Donald K. MacKay and Olav H. Løken

3b. Alpine Hydrology, H. Olav Slaymaker

4. Ice

4a. Permafrost, Jack D. Ives

4b. Present Arctic Ice Cover, Geoffrey Hattersley-Smith

4c. Present Alpine Ice Cover, Gunnar Østrem

Part II: Past Environments

5. Palaeoclimatology, James A. Larsen and Roger G. Barry

6. History of Glaciation

6a. Cainzoic Glaciations and Crustal Movements of the Arctic, John T. Andrews

6b. Alpine Quaternary Glaciation, Helmut Heuberger

Part III: Present Biota

7. Treeline

7a. Ecology of the Northern Continental Forest Border, James A. Larsen

7b. Alpine Timberlines, Peter Wardle

8. Vegetation

8a. Arctic and Alpine Vegetation: Plant Adaptation to Cold Summer Climates, W. Dwight Billings

8b. Tundra Primary Productivity, Patrick J. Webber

9. Terrestrial Vertebrates, Robert S. Hoffmann

Part IV: Development of Biota

10. Historical Plant Geography

10a. Origin and Evolution of the Arctic and Alpine Floras, Áskell Löve and Doris Löve

10b. Biological Refugia and the Nunatak Hypothesis, Jack D. Ives

11. Palaeoecology and Palaeozoogeography

11a. Arctic North American Palaeoecology: The Recent History of Vegetation and Climate Deduced From Pollen Analysis, Harvey Nichols

11b. Palaeolithic Players on the American Stage: Man’s Impact on the Late Pleistocene Megafauna, Paul S. Martin

Part V: Abiotic Processes

12. Geomorphic Processes

12a. Geomorphic Processes in the Arctic, J. Brain Bird

12b. The Geomorphic Processes of the Alpine Environment, Nel Caine

13. Soils

13a. Arctic Soils, Samuel Rieger

13b. Alpine Soils, John L. Retzer

Part VI: Man in Cold Environments

14. Bioclimatology

14a. Physiological Responses to Cold Environments, Claudia C. Van Wie

14b. Man Living at High Altitudes, Robert F. Grover

15. Archaeology

15a. The Peopling of Arctic North America, Robert McGhee

15b. Prehistoric Occupation of the Alpine Zone in the Rocky Mountains, Wilfred M. Husted

Part VII: Man’s Impact on the Environment

16. Radioecology, William S. Osburn Jr

17. The Impact of Twentieth-Century Technology

17a. Small-Scale Examples

17a.1. The Impact of Motor Vehicles, Jack D. Ives

17a.2. The Snowmobile in Eskimo Culture, William S. Osburn Jr

17a.3. The Snowmobile, Lapps and Reindeer Herding in Finnish Lapland, Ludger Müller-Wille

17a.4. The Impact of Man as a Biped, Jack D. Ives

17b. Large-Scale Examples, William S. Osburn Jr

18. Postscript, Jack D. Ives and Roger G. Barry

Glossary

Index

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