Artificial Intelligence for Games: 2nd Edition (Hardback) book cover

Artificial Intelligence for Games

2nd Edition

By Ian Millington, Ian Millington, John Funge

CRC Press

872 pages

Purchasing Options:$ = USD
Hardback: 9780123747310
pub: 2009-08-06
SAVE ~$15.00
eBook (VitalSource) : 9781315375229
pub: 2018-12-14
from $28.98

FREE Standard Shipping!


Creating robust artificial intelligence is one of the greatest challenges for game developers, yet the commercial success of a game is often dependent upon the quality of the AI. In this book, Ian Millington brings extensive professional experience to the problem of improving the quality of AI in games. He describes numerous examples from real games and explores the underlying ideas through detailed case studies. He goes further to introduce many techniques little used by developers today. The book's associated web site contains a library of C++ source code and demonstration programs, and a complete commercial source code library of AI algorithms and techniques.

"Artificial Intelligence for Games - 2nd edition" will be highly useful to academics teaching courses on game AI, in that it includes exercises with each chapter. It will also include new and expanded coverage of the following: AI-oriented gameplay; Behavior driven AI; Casual games (puzzle games).

Key Features

* The first comprehensive, professional tutorial and reference to implement true AI in games written by an engineer with extensive industry experience.

* Walks through the entire development process from beginning to end.

* Includes examples from over 100 real games, 10 in-depth case studies, and web site with sample code.


"Ian Millington's book is a comprehensive reference to the most widely used techniques in game AI today. Any game developer working on AI will learn something from this book, and game producers should make sure their AI programmers have a copy." -Dr. Ian Lane Davis, Mad Doc Software

Table of Contents

AI and Games


What Is AI?

Model of Game AI

Algorithms, Data Structures, and Representations

On the Website

Layout of the Book

Game AI

The Complexity Fallacy

The Kind of AI in Games

Speed and Memory

The AI Engine



The Basics of Movement Algorithms

Kinematic Movement Algorithms

Steering Behaviors

Combining Steering Behaviors

Predicting Physics


Coordinated Movement

Motor Control

Movement in the Third Dimension


The Pathfinding Graph



World Representations

Improving on A*

Hierarchical Pathfinding

Other Ideas in Pathfinding

Continuous Time Pathfinding

Movement Planning

Decision Making

Overview of Decision Making

Decision Trees

State Machines

Behavior Trees

Fuzzy Logic

Markov Systems

Goal-Oriented Behavior

Rule-Based Systems

Blackboard Architectures


Action Execution

Tactical and Strategic AI

Waypoint Tactics

Tactical Analyses

Tactical Pathfinding

Coordinated Action


Learning Basics

Parameter Modification

Action Prediction

Decision Learning

Naive Bayes Classifiers

Decision Tree Learning

Reinforcement Learning

Artificial Neural Networks

Board Games

Game Theory


Transposition Tables and Memory

Memory-Enhanced Test Algorithms

Opening Books and Other Set Plays

Further Optimizations

Turn-Based Strategy Games

Supporting Technologies

Execution Management


Anytime Algorithms

Level of Detail

World Interfacing


Getting Knowledge Efficiently

Event Managers

Polling Stations

Sense Management

Tools and Content Creation

Knowledge for Pathfinding and Waypoint Tactics

Knowledge for Movement

Knowledge for Decision Making

The Toolchain

Designing Game AI

Designing Game AI

The Design



Real-Time Strategy


Turn-Based Strategy Games

AI-Based Game Genres

Teaching Characters

Flocking and Herding Games


Books, Periodicals, and Papers


About the Authors

Ian Millington is a partner of IPR Ventures, a consulting company developing next-generation AI technologies for entertainment, modeling, and simulation. Previously he founded Mindlathe Ltd, the largest specialist AI middleware company in computer games, working with on a huge range of game genres and technologies. He has a long background in AI, including PhD research in complexity theory and natural computing. He has published academic and professional papers and articles on topics ranging from paleontology to hypertext.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
ART / Digital
COMPUTERS / Programming / Games