Artificial Muscles: Applications of Advanced Polymeric Nanocomposites, 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Artificial Muscles

Applications of Advanced Polymeric Nanocomposites, 1st Edition

By Mohsen Shahinpoor, Kwang J. Kim, Mehran Mojarrad

CRC Press

480 pages | 425 B/W Illus.

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pub: 2007-02-21
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Smart materials are the way of the future in a variety of fields, from biomedical engineering and chemistry to nanoscience, nanotechnology, and robotics. Featuring an interdisciplinary approach to smart materials and structures, Artificial Muscles: Applications of Advanced Polymeric Nanocomposites thoroughly reviews the existing knowledge of ionic polymeric conductor nanocomposites (IPCNCs), including ionic polymeric metal nanocomposites (IPMNCs) as biomimetic distributed nanosensors, nanoactuators, nanotransducers, nanorobots, artificial muscles, and electrically controllable intelligent polymeric network structures.

Authored by one of the founding fathers of the field, the book introduces fabrication and manufacturing methods of several electrically and chemically active ionic polymeric sensors, actuators, and artificial muscles, as well as a new class of electrically active polymeric nanocomposites and artificial muscles. It also describes a few apparatuses for modeling and testing various artificial muscles to show the viability of chemoactive and electroactive muscles. The authors present the theories, modeling, and numerical simulations of ionic polymeric artificial muscles’ electrodynamics and chemodynamics. In addition, they feature current industrial and medical applications of IPMNCs.

By covering the fabrication techniques of and novel developments in advanced polymeric nanocomposites, this book provides a solid foundation in the subject while stimulating further research.

Table of Contents

Introduction to Ionic Polymers, Ionic Gels, and Artificial Muscles


A Brief History of Electroactive Polymers (EAPs) and Artificial/Synthetic Muscles

A Brief History of Electromotive Polymers

Role of Microparticles in Contraction of Gels

Ionic Polymer–Metal Nanocomposites (IPMNCs): Fundamentals


Performance Characteristics

Advances in Force Optimization

Electric Deformation Memory Effects, Magnetic IPMNCs, and Self-Oscillatory Phenomena in Ionic Polymers

Ionic Polymer–Metal Nanocomposites: Manufacturing Techniques


IPMNC Base Materials

Manufacturing Techniques

Ionic Polyacrylonitrile Chemoelectromechanical Artificial Muscles/Nanomuscles


PAN Fabrication

PAN Characterization

PAN pH Meters

Electroactive PAN Muscles

Electrochemomechanical Actuation in Conductive Polyacrylonitrile (C-PAN) Fibers and Nanofibers

Five-Fingered Hand Design and Fabrication Using PAN Fiber Bundle Muscles

Micro-PAN Fiber Observation


PAMPS Gel Artificial Muscles



Gel Preparation

PAMPS Gel Application

Electroactive PAMPS Gel Robotic Structures

Engineering Strength Considerations on PAMPS Gels

Gel Robotics

Modeling and Simulation of IPMNCs as Distributed Biomimetic Nanosensors, Nanoactuators, Nanotransducers, and Artificial Muscles


Continuum Electrodynamics of Ionic Polymeric Gels’ Swelling and Deswelling

Continuum-Diffusion Electromechanical Model for Asymmetric Bending of Ionic Polymeric Gels

Continuum Microelectromechanical Models

Microelectromechanical Modeling of Asymmetric Deformation of Ionic Gels

Time-Dependent Phenomenological Model


Sensing, Transduction, Feedback Control, and Robotic Applications of Polymeric Artificial Muscles


Sensing Capabilities of IPMCs

Evaluation of IPMCs for Use as Near-DC Mechanical Sensors

Simulation and Control of Ionoelastic Beam Dynamic Deflection Model

Conductive or Conjugated Polymers as Artificial Muscles


Deformation of Conducting or Conjugated Polymers

Engineering, Industrial, and Medical Applications of Ionic Polymer–Metal Nanocomposites


Engineering and Industrial Applications

Biomedical Applications

Aerospace Applications

Epilogue and Conclusions


Conclusions: PAN Muscles

Conclusion: IPMNC Actuators

Conclusion: IPMNC Sensors and Transducers

Appendix A: Anatomy and Physiology of Human Muscle

Muscle Contraction

Role of Structural Components of Muscle Fibers

Isotonic and Isometric Contraction

Skeletal Muscle Fiber Types



Appendix B: Muscle Mechanics


Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
MEDICAL / Biotechnology