Synthetic Aperture Radar Automatic Detection Algorithms (SARADA) for Oil Spills conveys the pivotal tool required to fully comprehend the advanced algorithms in radar monitoring and detection of oil spills, particularly quantum computing and algorithms as a keystone to comprehending theories and algorithms behind radar imaging and detection of marine pollution. Bridging the gap between modern quantum mechanics and computing detection algorithms of oil spills, this book contains precise theories and techniques for automatic identification of oil spills from SAR measurements. Based on modern quantum physics, the book also includes the novel theory on radar imaging mechanism of oil spills.
With the use of precise quantum simulation of trajectory movements of oil spills using a sequence of radar images, this book demonstrates the use of SARADA for contamination by oil spills as a promising novel technique.
- Introduces basic concepts of a radar remote sensing.
- Fills a gap in the knowledge base of quantum theory and microwave remote sensing.
- Discusses the important aspects of oil spill imaging in radar data in relation to the quantum theory.
- Provides recent developments and progresses of automatic detection algorithms of oil spill from radar data.
- Presents 2-D oil spill radar data in 4-D images.
Table of Contents
Microwave Remote Sensing based on Maxwell Equations
Simple wave Equation Based on Maxwell’s Equations
Solution of Electromagnetic Waves in a Homogenous Dielectric
Electromagnetic Wave Characteristics Based on Maxwell’s Equations
The Poynting Theory
Waves from Localized Sources
Momentum as the Route of Radiation Pressure
Can Maxwell’s Electrodynamics Formulate in Space and Time?
Quantization of Maxwell’s Equation and Electromagnetic Field
Definitions of Quantization of Electromagnetic Field
The Photoelectric Effect
De Broglie's wavelength
Maxwell Photon Wave Function
Quantanize of Electromagnetic Waves
Feynman's Perspective of Electromagnetic Waves
Feynman’s Derivation of Maxwell’s Equations
Do Maxwell's Equation Describe a Single Photon or an Infinite Number of Photons?
Quantum Signals at Microwave Devices
Electromagnetic Wave and Microwave Beam
Photon of Microwave Beams
Concept of Generating Microwave Beams
Josephson junctions for Microwave Photon Generations
Mathematical Description of Quantum Microwave
Microwave Signal Harmonic Oscillators Using Ladder Operator
Quantum Electromagnetic Signals Propagating along Transmission Lines
Quantum Langevin Equation
Quantum Mechanical of Scattering Cross-Section Theory
Definitions of Scattering
Mathematical Description of Scattering Cross-Section
Why Does Scattering Rely on Spin?
Correlation between the Scattering Cross-section to the Wave Function
Scattering from Roughness Surface
Scattering of Identical Particles
Scattering of Particles with Spin
Scattering of Zero Spin Particles
Dielectric Materials and Electric Polarizability
Quantum Young Scattering
Quantization of Radar Theory
Radio Detecting And Ranging
Echo-location Detecting and Ranging
High-Range-Resolution (HRR) Imaging
Radar Microwave Characteristics
Why Quantum Radar Sensors Are Required?
What Does Mean by Quantum Radar?
What are the Classifications of Quantum Radar?
Classical Radar Equation
Quantum Radar Equation
Radar Scattering Regime
Quantum Theory of Radar System
Quantum Radar Illumination
Theories of Synthetic Aperture Radar
What is Meant by Aperture?
Real and Synthetic Aperture Radar
Slant and Ground Range Resolution
Range-Rate Measurement (Doppler)
Ambiguity Function of SAR
SAR Pulse Compression Waveforms
Azimuth Matched Filtering
SAR Satellite Sensors
Waves and Frequency Ranges Used by Radar
Novel Relativity Theories of Synthetic Aperture Radar
What is Simple Definition of Relativity?
Relativistic of SAR Doppler
Does SAR Polarization Cause Length Contraction?
SAR Time and Range Relativities
The relativity of Frequency Changing
Invariance of Space-time Interval
Quantization of Oil Spill Imagining in Synthetic Aperture Radar
Quantization of Crude Oil Chemical Chains
Wave Particle Duality of Oil Spill
Quantum of Oil Spill Electric Conductivity
Bragg Scattering and Dielectric Sea Surface
Impact of Surface Dielectric in SAR Backscatter
Quantization Specular Reflection in SAR Data
Quantum Radar Cross Section of Bragg Scattering of Oil-Covered
Decoherence Imaging Mechanism of Oil Spill
Texture and Quantum Entropy Algorithms for Oil Spill Detection in Synthetic Aperture Radar Images
Textures Based-SAR Backscattering from Oil-covered Water
Structure of the GLCM
Creating Texture Image
Mathematical Description of Co-occurrence Matrix
Can GLCM Accurately Detect Oil Spill?
Can Quantum Entropy perform better than Entropy for the Automatic Detection of Oil Spill?
Mahalanobis Classifier and Neural Network Algorithms for Oil Spill Detection
Machine Learning Algorithms for Automatic Detection of Oil Spill
Selected SAR Data Acquisition
Oil Spill Detection by Mahalanobis Classifier
Artificial Intelligent for Oil Spill Automatic Detection
Frame Structure of Neural Network for Oil Spill Automatic Detection
Backpropagation Learning Algorithm for Automatic Detection of Oil Spill
Backpropagation Training Algorithm
Oil Spill Detection by Neural Network Algorithm
Comparison between Mahalanobis Classifier and Neural Networks
Fractal Algorithm for Discrimination between Oil Spill and Look-Alike
Definitions of Fractal
Estimation of Fractal
Estimation of Hurst Exponent
Fractal Algorithm for Oil Spill Identification
Otsu Thresholding Algorithm
Examined SAR Satellite Data
Backscatter, Incident Angle and Wind Variation along Suspected Oil Spill Patches
Fractal Map of Oil Spill and Look-alikes
How Far Can Fractal Algorithm Detect Oil Spill?
Quantum Cellular Automata Algorithm for Automatic Detection of Oil Spills and Look-Alikes
Principles of Quantum-dot Cellular Automata
Quantum Cellular Automata Cell Construction
QCA Adder with Five Gates for Automatic Detection of Oil Spill
Cellular automata for Automatic Detection of Oil Spill
Explored SAR Images
Oil Spills in RADARSAT-2 SAR Data
Automatic Detection of Oil Spill by Quantum Cellular Automata
Accuracy of QCA for Automatic Detection of Oil Spill in SAR Data
Why QCA is able to Detect Oil Spill Automatically?
Quantum Multiobjective Algorithm for Automatic Detection of Oil Spill Spreading from Full Polarimetric Sar Data
Principles of Fully Polarimetric SAR Images
Quantum Machine Learning
Quantum Multiobjective Evolutionary Algorithm (QMEA)
Generation of Qubit Populations
Generation of Oil Spill Population Pattern
Quantum Non-dominate Sort and Elitism (QNSGA-II)
Quantum Pareto Optimal Solution
Automatic Detection of Oil Spill in Full Polarimetric SAR
Applications of QNSGA-II to other Satellite Polarimetric SAR Sensors
Quantum Decoherence Theory and QNSGA-II
Pareto Optimization Role in QNSGA-II
Comparison with Previous Studies
Simulation of Trajectory Movements of Oil Spill in Multisar Satellite Data Using Quantum Hopfield Algorithm
Oil Spill Trajectory Models: What They Are, How They Are Created, How They Are Used An Oil Spill?
Role of Synthetic Aperture Radar for Tracking Oil Spill Trajectory Movement
Hypotheses and Objectives
Fay ‘s Algorithm and Trajectory of Oil Spill
Hopfield Neural Network for Retrieving Current Pattern from MultiSAR Data
Quantum Hopfield Algorithm
Quantum Trajectory Search for Oil Spill Movements in MultiSAR Data
Sequences of SAR Data for Oil Spill Trajectory Movements
Trajectory Movements of Oil Spill Using Quantum Hopfield Algorithm
Impact of Current Pattern on Oil Spill Trajectory Movements
How far the Impact of Loop Current on Oil Spill?
Why qHop Algorithm can be used to simulate and track the oil spill trajectory movement?
Maged Marghany is currently a professor of remote sensing in the Faculty of Geospatial and Real Estate, Geomatika University College (GUC), Malaysia. He authored Advanced Remote Sensing Technology for Tsunami Modelling and Forecasting, published in 2018. His research focuses on microwave remote sensing and remote sensing for mineralogy detection and mapping. Previously, he worked as a Deputy Director in Research and Development at the Institute of Geospatial Science and Technology and the Department of Remote Sensing, both at Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. Maged has earned many degrees, including a post-doctoral in radar remote sensing from the International Institute for Aerospace Survey and Earth Sciences, a PhD in environmental remote sensing from the Universiti Putra Malaysia, a Master of Science in physical oceanography from the University Pertanian Malaysia, general and special diploma of Education and a Bachelor of Science in physical oceanography from the University of Alexandria in Egypt. Maged has published well over 250 papers in international conferences and journals and is active in International Geoinformatics, and the International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ISPRS).