In this book, first published in 1992, the author examines the polemic fought by German Social-Democratic Party leaders and intellectuals Karl Kautsky and Eduard Bernstein against what they perceived to be misunderstandings of Marxism propagated by members of the Social-Democratic Federation (SDF) in England and by the socialist leader Wilhelm Liebknecht in Germany. The debate raised basic questions of socialist theory, including whether the program of Marx and Engels called for scholarly study, parliamentary democracy, and gradual social evolution, or for Utopian speculation, economic collapse, and violent rebellion.
1. Introduction 1.1. The Legacy of Friedrich Engels 1.2. Learning About Marxism 1.3. The Erfurt Program and Wilhelm Liebknecht 1.4. Economic Determinism and Revolutionary Consciousness 1.5. The Democratic Republic 1.6. Worker Impoverishment, Capital Concentration, and the Catastrophe 1.7. Socialization, Reforms, and Political Cooperation 1.8. Violence and Revolution 1.9. Revolution in England 2. The Agrarian Question (1895) 2.1. Earlier Social-Democratic Views on the Agrarian Question 2.2. The Frankfurt Party Congress 2.3. Reactions to the Frankfurt Party Congress 2.4. Engels’s ‘The Peasant Question’ 2.5. The Agrarian Commission 2.6. Kautsky and the Agrarian Program 2.7. The Breslau Party Congress 2.8. The Agrarian Question After Breslau 2.9. Persecution 3. British Politics (Autumn 1895) 3.1. Engels, Liebknecht, and the SDF, 1881-1895 3.2. The Fabian Essays, 1889 3.3. The Fabians and German Marxism 3.4. The Parliamentary Elections of 1895 3.5. Fabian Arguments Against the SDF 4. The Political Crises of 1896 4.1. South Africa 4.2. Saxony 4.3. Poland 4.4. London 4.5. Turkey 5. The Theory Debates of 1896 (Summer and Fall) 5.1. Kanner and the ‘Bourgeois Ideologists’ 5.2. Ernest Belfort-Bax and the Meaning of Marxism 5.3. Social Democracy and the Fabians 5.4. The ‘Problems of Socialism’ Series Begins 5.5. Belfort-Bax’s Reply 6. The Turning Point (Winter 1897) 6.1. Bertrand Russell and Social Democracy 6.2. Bernstein’s Fabian Speech 6.3. The Addendum to Héritier 6.4. The ‘Problems of Socialism’ Series Continued 6.5. Shaw and the ‘Illusions of Socialism’ 7. Crete and Prussia (Spring and Summer 1897) 7.1. Crete 7.2. Prussia 8. The Last Months Before the Controversy 8.1. Strict Marxism (Late August) 8.2. Youth Labour (September) 8.3. The Review of Sighele (November) 8.4. The ‘Final-Goal Article’ (December) 9. Conclusion
Marxist thought continues to be relevant in the modern world, perhaps to the surprise of those who celebrated the fall of the Berlin Wall with the declaration that democracy and the market had ‘won’ the march of history. This 23-volume set collects together both accounts of the development of Marxism and critiques of its thinking. Out-of-print or had to find, these titles form an essential reference source for the understanding of Marxism in all its varied facets.