This book focuses on the radical changes in the Arab world. It describes how a process similar to the organic development of the secular state in Europe was interrupted in the Middle East by Western colonialism, which led to the reassertion of Islam as the sole source of political legitimacy. .
1. Introduction: The Development of Secularism 2. Islamic Decentralization and Initial Responses 3. The Ottoman Interlude 4. The Emergence of National Self-Awareness in Syria and Egypt 5. The Arab Revolt and Its Aftermath 6. The Legacy of Interwar Political Developments 7. The Legacy of Interwar Religious Developments 8. Straining Traditional Models 9. Trends and Prospects for the Future