Biogeochemistry of Wetlands: Science and Applications, 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Biogeochemistry of Wetlands

Science and Applications, 1st Edition

By K. Ramesh Reddy, Ronald D. DeLaune

CRC Press

800 pages | 540 B/W Illus.

Purchasing Options:$ = USD
Hardback: 9781566706780
pub: 2008-07-28
SAVE ~$42.00
eBook (VitalSource) : 9780429095764
pub: 2008-07-28
from $28.98

FREE Standard Shipping!


Wetland ecosystems maintain a fragile balance of soil, water, plant, and atmospheric components in order to regulate water flow, flooding, and water quality. Marginally covered in traditional texts on biogeochemistry or on wetland soils, Biogeochemistry of Wetlands is the first to focus entirely on the biological, geological, physical, and chemical processes that affect these critical habitats.

This book offers an in-depth look at the chemical and biological cycling of nutrients, trace elements, and toxic organic compounds in wetland soil and water column as related to water quality, carbon sequestration, and greenhouse gases. It details the electrochemistry, biochemical processes, and transformation mechanisms for the elemental cycling of carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur. Additional chapters examine the fate and chemistry of heavy metals and toxic organic compounds in wetland environments. The authors emphasize the role of redox-pH conditions, organic matter, microbial-mediated processes that drive transformation in wetlands, plant responses and adaptation to wetland soil conditions. They also analyze how excess water, sediment water, and atmospheric change relate to elemental biogeochemical cycling.

Delivering an in-depth scientific examination of the natural processes that occur in wetland ecosystems, Biogeochemistry of Wetlands comprises a key perspective on the environmental impact of pollutants and the role freshwater and coastal wetlands play in global climate change.


"… represents the new generation of books that comprehensively describe the principles and advances in the field of wetland science … . I strongly recommend this book … chocked full of well-designed and well-thought out figures. … the authors, with nearly a century of research experience between them, are among the giants in the field of wetland biogeochemistry … . You will enjoy using and referencing this book … I know I will."

– Christopher Craft, School of Public and Environmental Affairs, Indiana University in Soil Science Society of America Journal, Vol. 73, No. 2, 2009

Table of Contents


Basic Concepts and Terminology


Microbiology and Biochemistry


Terminology in Soil Science


Biogeochemical Characteristics of Wetlands

Types of Wetlands

Wetland Hydrology

Wetland Soils

Wetland Vegetation

Biogeochemical Features of Wetlands

Types of Wetland/Hydric Soils

Field Indicators of Hydric Soils

Electrochemical Properties

Theoretical Relationships

Measurement of Eh

Eh–pH Relationships

Buffering of Redox Potential (Poise)

Measurement of Redox Potentials


Redox Couples in Wetlands

Redox Gradients in Soils

Microbial Fuel Cells

Specific Conductance


Major Components of Carbon Cycle in Wetlands

Organic Matter Accumulation

Characteristics of Detritus and Soil Organic Matter


Organic Matter Turnover

Regulators of Organic Matter Decomposition

Environmental and Ecological Significance

Functions of Organic Matter in Soils


Oxygen–H2O Redox Couple

Soil Gases

Sources of Oxygen

Aerobic–Anaerobic Interfaces

Oxygen Consumption

Adaptation of Plants to Soil Anaerobiosis

Distribution of Wetland Plants

Mechanisms of Flood Tolerance

Mechanisms of Oxygen Movement in Wetland Plants

Oxygen Release by Plants

Measurement of Radial Oxygen Loss

Soil Phytotoxic Accumulation Effects on Plant Growth

Oxidizing Power of Plant Roots

Effect of Intensity and Capacity of Soil Reduction on Wetland Plant Functions .000


Forms of Nitrogen

Major Storage Compartments

Redox Transformations of Nitrogen

Mineralization of Organic Nitrogen

Ammonia Adsorption–Desorption

Ammonia Fixation

Ammonia Volatilization


Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation

Nitrate Reduction

Nitrogen Fixation

Nitrogen Assimilation by Vegetation

Nitrogen Processing by Wetlands


Phosphorus Accumulation in Wetlands

Phosphorus Forms in Water Column and Soil

Inorganic Phosphorus

Phosphorus Sorption by Soils

Organic Phosphorus

Phosphorus Uptake and Storage in Biotic Communities

Mineralization of Organic Phosphorus

Biotic and Abiotic Interactions on Phosphorus Mobilization

Phosphorus Exchange between Soil and Overlying Water Column .000

Phosphorus Memory by Soils and Sediments

Biogeochemistry of Iron and Manganese

Storage and Distribution

Eh–pH Relationships

Reduction of Iron and Manganese

Oxidation of Iron and Manganese

Mobility of Iron and Manganese

Ecological Significance


Major Storage Compartments

Forms of Sulfur

Oxidation–Reduction of Sulfur

Assimilatory Sulfate and Elemental Sulfur Reduction

Mineralization of Organic Sulfur

Electron Acceptor—Reduction of Inorganic Sulfur

Electron Donor—Oxidation of Sulfur Compounds

Biogenic Emission of Reduced Sulfur Gases

Sulfur–Metal Interactions

Sulfi de Toxicity

Exchange between Soil and Water Column

Sulfur Sinks


Factors Governing Metal Availability and Transformation .000

Mercury—Methyl Mercury


Chemical Oxidation and Reduction of Arsenic








Toxic Organic Compounds

Biotic Pathways

Metabolism of Organic Compounds

Plant and Microbial Uptake

Abiotic Pathways


Soil and Floodwater Exchange Processes

Advective Flux

Diffusive Flux


Wind Mixing and Resuspension

Exchange of Dissolved Solutes between Soil/Sediment and the Water Column .000

Sediment Transport Processes

Vegetative Flux/Detrital Export

Air–Water Exchange

40 Biogeochemical Regulation of Exchange Processes

Biogeochemical Indicators

Concept of Indicators

Guidelines for Indicator Development

Levels of Indicators

Wetland Ecosystem Reference Conditions

Sampling Protocol and Design

Data Analysis

Wetlands and Global Climate Change

Potential Impact of Global Change to Wetlands


Nitrous Oxide

Carbon Sequestration

Impact of Sea-Level Rise on Coastal Wetlands

Freshwater Wetlands: The Everglades

Everglades Wetlands

Nutrient Loads and Ecological Alternations

Biogeochemical Cycles

Restoration and Recovery

Coastal Wetlands: Mississippi River Deltaic Plain Coastal Marshes, Louisiana

Biogeography and Geology of Louisiana Coastal Wetlands

Coastal Wetland Loss

Case Studies

Impact of Flooding and Saltwater Intrusion on Louisiana Coastal Vegetation

Carbon Cycling

Nitrogen Cycling

Sulfur Cycling

Case Studies of Factors Governing the Fate of Toxic Organic Compounds and Pollutants in the Louisiana Coastal Wetland


Advances in Biogeochemistry

Biogeochemical Processes

Algal and Microbial Interactions

Vegetation and Microbial Interactions

Modern Tools to Study Biogeochemical Cycles

Synthesis: Mechanistic and Statistical Models

Future Directions and Perspectives



*Each chapter contains an Introduction, Summary, References, and suggestions for Further Readings. Most chapters also contain Study Questions.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
SCIENCE / Earth Sciences / Geology
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Agriculture / General
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Environmental / Water Supply