1st Edition

Biometric Technology
Authentication, Biocryptography, and Cloud-Based Architecture

ISBN 9781466592452
Published November 7, 2014 by Routledge
374 Pages - 28 B/W Illustrations

USD $78.95

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Book Description

Most biometric books are either extraordinarily technical for technophiles or extremely elementary for the lay person. Striking a balance between the two, Biometric Technology: Authentication, Biocryptography, and Cloud-Based Architecture is ideal for business, IT, or security managers that are faced with the task of making purchasing, migration, or adoption decisions. It brings biometrics down to an understandable level, so that you can immediately begin to implement the concepts discussed.

Exploring the technological and social implications of widespread biometric use, the book considers the science and technology behind biometrics as well as how it can be made more affordable for small and medium-sized business. It also presents the results of recent research on how the principles of cryptography can make biometrics more secure.

Covering biometric technologies in the cloud, including security and privacy concerns, the book includes a chapter that serves as a "how-to manual" on procuring and deploying any type of biometric system. It also includes specific examples and case studies of actual biometric deployments of localized and national implementations in the U.S. and other countries.

The book provides readers with a technical background on the various biometric technologies and how they work. Examining optimal application in various settings and their respective strengths and weaknesses, it considers ease of use, false positives and negatives, and privacy and security issues. It also covers emerging applications such as biocryptography.

Although the text can be understood by just about anybody, it is an ideal resource for corporate-level executives who are considering implementing biometric technologies in their organizations.

Table of Contents

An Introduction to Biometrics
Our Unique Features: Physiological and Behavioral
How Our Unique Features Can Positively Identify Us: The World of Biometrics
A Formal Definition of Biometrics
What Is Recognition?
Physiological and Behavioral Biometrics
What the Future Holds
The Granular Components of Recognition
Defining the Biometric Template
The Mathematical Files of the Biometric Templates
Understanding Some of the Myths Behind Biometrics
Understanding the Differences of Verification and Enrollment Templates
Summary of Points Covered
The Biometric Process Illustrated
     For the CIO: What Biometric System to Procure? 
     For the CIO: Important KPIs to Be Examined
Looking beyond the KPI
U.S. Federal Government Biometric Metrics and KPI
     Biometric Data Interchange Formats 
     Common Biometric Exchange Format Framework 
     Biometric Technical Interface Standards
U.S. Federal Government Biometric Testing Standards
A Review of Biometric Sensors 
     Optical Scanners 
     Solid-State Sensors
     Ultrasound Sensors
     Temperature Differential Sensors 
     Multispectral Imaging Sensors 
     Touchless Fingerprint Sensors 
          CCD Cameras 
          3-D Sensors/Review of Biometric Sensors in Use
     The Disadvantages of Sensors 
     Typical Biometric Market Segments 
          Logical Access Control
          Physical Access Control 
          Time and Attendance 
     Law Enforcement 
Review of Chapter 1

A Review of the Present and Future Biometric Technologies
The Biometric Technologies of Today: Physical and Behavioral
Differences between Physical Biometrics and Behavioral Biometrics
Which One to Use: Physical or Behavioral Biometrics?
Fingerprint Recognition 
     The Unique Features 
     The Process of Fingerprint Recognition 
     Fingerprint Recognition Quality Control Checks 
     Methods of Fingerprint Collection 
     The Matching Algorithm
     Fingerprint Recognition: Advantages and Disadvantages 
     Market Applications of Fingerprint Recognition
Hand Geometry Recognition 
     Hand Geometry Recognition: Enrollment Process 
     Hand Geometry Recognition: Advantages and Disadvantages
Vein Pattern Recognition 
     Components of Vein Pattern Recognition 
     How Vein Pattern Recognition Works 
     Vein Pattern Recognition: Advantages and Disadvantages
Palm Print Recognition
     How Palm Print Recognition Works 
     Palm Print Recognition: Advantages and Disadvantages
Facial Recognition 
     Facial Recognition: How It Works 
     Defining the Effectiveness of a Facial Recognition System
     Techniques of Facial Recognition
     Facial Recognition: Advantages and Disadvantages 
     Applications of Facial Recognition
The Eye: The Iris and the Retina 
     The Iris
     The Physiological Structure of the Iris 
     Iris Recognition: How It Works
     The Market Applications of Iris Recognition
     Iris Recognition: Advantages and Disadvantages
     The Retina
     The Physiology of the Retina
     The Process of Retinal Recognition 
     Retinal Recognition: Advantages and Disadvantages
Voice Recognition 
     Voice Recognition: How It Works 
     Factors Affecting Voice Recognition 
     Voice Recognition: Advantages and Disadvantages
     The Market Applications of Voice Recognition
Signature Recognition 
     The Differences between a Signature and Signature Recognition
     Signature Recognition: How It Works 
     Signature Recognition: Advantages and Disadvantages
Keystroke Recognition
     Keystroke Recognition: How It Works 
     Keystroke Recognition: Advantages and Disadvantages
Biometric Technologies of the Future
DNA Recognition 
     DNA Recognition: How It Works 
     DNA Recognition: Advantages and Disadvantages
Gait Recognition 
     The Process behind Gait Recognition
     Gait Recognition: Advantages and Disadvantages
Earlobe Recognition 
     Earlobe Recognition: How It Works
     Earlobe Recognition: Advantages and Disadvantages
Review of Chapter 2

For the C-Level Executive: A Biometrics Project Management Guide
Biometric Technology System Architecture
Sensing and Data Acquisition 
     Multimodal Biometric Systems
     Single Sign-On Solutions 
     Implementing a Multimodal Biometric System
     Challenges with Multimodal Biometric Systems
Signal and Image Processing
     Preprocessing of the Biometric Raw Image
     Quality Control Checks 
     Image Enhancement
     Feature Extraction 
     Data Compression
Data Storage 
     Search and Retrieval Techniques
     Database Search Algorithms
     Backup and Recovery of the Database
     Database Configurations
Template Matching
Threshold Decision Making
Administration Decision Making 
     Biometric Templates Adaptation 
     Establishment of the Security Threshold Values
     Reporting and Control 
     System Mode Adjustment
     Privileges to End Users
Data Transmission
Biometrics Project Management 
     System Concepts and Classification Schemes 
     Upgrading to a Newer Biometric System?
     The Feasibility Study 
     Application Classifiers 
     System Design and Interoperability Factors and Considerations
     COTS -Based Biometric Systems 
     Proprietary or Open-Ended System?
     Infrastructure Assessment 
     The Human Equation
     Ergonomic Issues 
     The Feedback System 
     Population Dynamics 
     Systems Requirements Analysis 
     System Requirements Elicitation
     System Requirement Analysis and Regulation
     System Requirements Documentation 
     System Requirements Validation 
     Biometric System Specifications
     System Architectural and Processing Designs 
     Storage and Matching Combinations
     Operational Architecture Design—Multimodal Systems
     The Information Processing Architecture
     Subsystem Analysis and Design
     Data Storage Subsystem Design Considerations
     Database Management System 
     Determining the Security Threshold 
     Subsystem Implementation and Testing 
     System Deployment and Integration
     The Biometric Interface 
     End User/Administrator Training
     System Maintenance 
     Upgrading an Existing System/Fine Tuning 
     System Reports and Logs
     System Networking 
     Network Processing Loads 
     A Networking Scenario 
     Biometric Networking Topologies 
     Data Packets 
     Data Packet Subcomponents
     Data Packet Switching 
     Network Protocols 
     Client–Server Network Topology 
     Peer-to-Peer Network Topology
     Routing Tables 
     Network Traffic Collisions
Review of Chapter 3

An Introduction to Biocryptography
Cryptography and Biocryptography
Introduction to Cryptography 
     Message Scrambling and Descrambling 
     Encryption and Decryption 
     Symmetric Key Systems and Asymmetric Key Systems
     The Caesar Methodology 
     Types of Cryptographic Attacks 
     Polyalphabetic Encryption 210
     Block Ciphers 
     Initialization Vectors 
     Cipher Block Chaining 
     Disadvantages of Symmetric Key Cryptography 
     The Key Distribution Center 
     Mathematical Algorithms with Symmetric Cryptography 
     The Hashing Function 
     Asymmetric Key Cryptography 
     Keys and Public Private Keys
     The Differences between Asymmetric and Symmetric Cryptography
     The Disadvantages of Asymmetric Cryptography 
     The Mathematical Algorithms of Asymmetric Cryptography
     The Public Key Infrastructure
     The Digital Certificates
     How PKI Works 
     PKI Policies and Rules 
     The Lightweight Directory Access Protocol 
     The Public Cryptography Standards 
     Parameters of Public Keys and Private Keys
     How Many Servers? 
     Security Policies 
     Securing the Public Keys and the Private Keys 
     Message Digests and Hashes
     Security Vulnerabilities of Hashes 
     Virtual Private Networks 
     IP Tunneling
     Mobile VPNs 
     Is the VPN Worth It? 
     Conducting a VPN Cost–Benefit Analysis
     Implementing a VPN 
     The Components of a VPN Security Policy 
     End Users and Employees 
     The Network Requirements 
     Building Your Own VPN 
     Impacts to the Web Server 
     Impacts to the Application Server
     Impacts to the Database Server
     Impacts to the Firewall 
     VPN Testing
     Implementing a VPN 
     Managing Public and Private Key Exchanges 
     The Access Control List 
     Internet Drafts 
     Four Vulnerabilities of a Biometrics VPN
     The Cipher Biometric Template 
     Biocryptography Keys 
     A Review of How Biocryptography Can Be Used to Further Protect
     Fingerprint and Iris Templates 
          Biocryptography in a Single Biometric System 
          Biocryptography in a Client–Server Biometric System
          Biocryptography in a Hosted Biometrics Environment 
      Biocryptography and VPNs
Review of Chapter 4

An Introduction to Biometrics in the Cloud
Introduction to Cloud Computing
The Basic Concepts and Terminology Surrounding Cloud Computing
The Cloud
     Two Distinctions 
     The IT Resource 
     On Premise
     Asset Scaling 
     Proportional Costs 
     Availability and Reliability 
     SLA Agreements
     The Challenges and Risks of Cloud Computing
     Security Risk and Challenge
     Reduced Operational Governance
     Limited Portability 
     Compliance and Legal Issues 
     The Functions and Characteristics of Cloud Computing 
     On-Demand Usage
     Ubiquitous Access 
     Resource Pooling 
Measured Usage 
     Cloud-Computing Delivery Models 
          Infrastructure as a Service 
          Platform as a Service 
          Software as a Service 
     Cloud-Computing Deployment Models 
          Public Cloud 
          Community Cloud
          Private Cloud 
          Hybrid Cloud
The Security Threats Posed to Cloud Computing
     Security Risk
     Security Controls 
     Security Mechanisms 
     Security Policies 
     Anonymous Attacker 
     Malicious Service Agent 
     Trusted Attacker
     Malicious Insider 
     Traffic Eavesdropping 
     Malicious Intermediary
     Denial of Service 
     Insufficient Authorization 
     Virtualization Attack
     Overlapping Trust Boundaries
Important Mechanisms of Cloud Computing 
     Load Balancers 
     Pay-per-Use Monitor 
     Audit Monitor 
     Failover System
     Resource Clustering
          Server Cluster 
          Database Cluster 
          Large Data-Set Cluster 
     Cloud Computing Cost Metrics and Service Quality Mechanisms
          Network Usage 
          Server Usage 
          Cloud Storage Device Usage 
          Other Cost Management Considerations 
     Service Availability Metrics 
     Service Reliability Metrics
     Service Performance Metrics 
     Service Scalability Metrics 
     Service Resiliency Metrics
An Introduction to Biometrics in the Cloud 
     Virtual Servers 
A Detailed Example of How Biometrics in the Cloud Would Look Like
A Review of the Advantages and the Disadvantages of Biometrics in the Cloud

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Ravindra Das was born and raised in West Lafayette, Indiana. He received his undergraduate degree from Purdue University, MS from Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, Illinois, and MBA from Bowling Green State University in international trade and management information systems, respectively.

He has been involved in biometrics for more than 15 years and currently owns a biometrics consultancy firm (Apollo Biometrics) based in Chicago, Illinois. He has been published extensively in Europe.