Biometric Technology: Authentication, Biocryptography, and Cloud-Based Architecture, 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Biometric Technology

Authentication, Biocryptography, and Cloud-Based Architecture, 1st Edition

By Ravi Das

CRC Press

374 pages | 28 B/W Illus.

Purchasing Options:$ = USD
Hardback: 9781466592452
pub: 2014-11-07
eBook (VitalSource) : 9780429254932
pub: 2014-11-07
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Most biometric books are either extraordinarily technical for technophiles or extremely elementary for the lay person. Striking a balance between the two, Biometric Technology: Authentication, Biocryptography, and Cloud-Based Architecture is ideal for business, IT, or security managers that are faced with the task of making purchasing, migration, or adoption decisions. It brings biometrics down to an understandable level, so that you can immediately begin to implement the concepts discussed.

Exploring the technological and social implications of widespread biometric use, the book considers the science and technology behind biometrics as well as how it can be made more affordable for small and medium-sized business. It also presents the results of recent research on how the principles of cryptography can make biometrics more secure.

Covering biometric technologies in the cloud, including security and privacy concerns, the book includes a chapter that serves as a "how-to manual" on procuring and deploying any type of biometric system. It also includes specific examples and case studies of actual biometric deployments of localized and national implementations in the U.S. and other countries.

The book provides readers with a technical background on the various biometric technologies and how they work. Examining optimal application in various settings and their respective strengths and weaknesses, it considers ease of use, false positives and negatives, and privacy and security issues. It also covers emerging applications such as biocryptography.

Although the text can be understood by just about anybody, it is an ideal resource for corporate-level executives who are considering implementing biometric technologies in their organizations.

Table of Contents

An Introduction to Biometrics

Our Unique Features: Physiological and Behavioral

How Our Unique Features Can Positively Identify Us: The World of Biometrics

A Formal Definition of Biometrics

What Is Recognition?

Physiological and Behavioral Biometrics

What the Future Holds

The Granular Components of Recognition

Defining the Biometric Template

The Mathematical Files of the Biometric Templates

Understanding Some of the Myths Behind Biometrics

Understanding the Differences of Verification and Enrollment Templates

Summary of Points Covered

The Biometric Process Illustrated

For the CIO: What Biometric System to Procure?

For the CIO: Important KPIs to Be Examined

Looking beyond the KPI

U.S. Federal Government Biometric Metrics and KPI

Biometric Data Interchange Formats

Common Biometric Exchange Format Framework

Biometric Technical Interface Standards

U.S. Federal Government Biometric Testing Standards

A Review of Biometric Sensors

Optical Scanners

Solid-State Sensors

Ultrasound Sensors

Temperature Differential Sensors

Multispectral Imaging Sensors

Touchless Fingerprint Sensors

CCD Cameras

3-D Sensors/Review of Biometric Sensors in Use

The Disadvantages of Sensors

Typical Biometric Market Segments

Logical Access Control

Physical Access Control

Time and Attendance

Law Enforcement


Review of Chapter 1

A Review of the Present and Future Biometric Technologies

The Biometric Technologies of Today: Physical and Behavioral

Differences between Physical Biometrics and Behavioral Biometrics

Which One to Use: Physical or Behavioral Biometrics?

Fingerprint Recognition

The Unique Features

The Process of Fingerprint Recognition

Fingerprint Recognition Quality Control Checks

Methods of Fingerprint Collection

The Matching Algorithm

Fingerprint Recognition: Advantages and Disadvantages

Market Applications of Fingerprint Recognition

Hand Geometry Recognition

Hand Geometry Recognition: Enrollment Process

Hand Geometry Recognition: Advantages and Disadvantages

Vein Pattern Recognition

Components of Vein Pattern Recognition

How Vein Pattern Recognition Works

Vein Pattern Recognition: Advantages and Disadvantages

Palm Print Recognition

How Palm Print Recognition Works

Palm Print Recognition: Advantages and Disadvantages

Facial Recognition

Facial Recognition: How It Works

Defining the Effectiveness of a Facial Recognition System

Techniques of Facial Recognition

Facial Recognition: Advantages and Disadvantages

Applications of Facial Recognition

The Eye: The Iris and the Retina

The Iris

The Physiological Structure of the Iris

Iris Recognition: How It Works

The Market Applications of Iris Recognition

Iris Recognition: Advantages and Disadvantages

The Retina

The Physiology of the Retina

The Process of Retinal Recognition

Retinal Recognition: Advantages and Disadvantages

Voice Recognition

Voice Recognition: How It Works

Factors Affecting Voice Recognition

Voice Recognition: Advantages and Disadvantages

The Market Applications of Voice Recognition

Signature Recognition

The Differences between a Signature and Signature Recognition

Signature Recognition: How It Works

Signature Recognition: Advantages and Disadvantages

Keystroke Recognition

Keystroke Recognition: How It Works

Keystroke Recognition: Advantages and Disadvantages

Biometric Technologies of the Future

DNA Recognition

DNA Recognition: How It Works

DNA Recognition: Advantages and Disadvantages

Gait Recognition

The Process behind Gait Recognition

Gait Recognition: Advantages and Disadvantages

Earlobe Recognition

Earlobe Recognition: How It Works

Earlobe Recognition: Advantages and Disadvantages

Review of Chapter 2

For the C-Level Executive: A Biometrics Project Management Guide

Biometric Technology System Architecture

Sensing and Data Acquisition

Multimodal Biometric Systems

Single Sign-On Solutions

Implementing a Multimodal Biometric System

Challenges with Multimodal Biometric Systems

Signal and Image Processing

Preprocessing of the Biometric Raw Image

Quality Control Checks

Image Enhancement

Feature Extraction


Data Compression

Data Storage

Search and Retrieval Techniques

Database Search Algorithms

Backup and Recovery of the Database

Database Configurations

Template Matching

Threshold Decision Making

Administration Decision Making

Biometric Templates Adaptation

Establishment of the Security Threshold Values

Reporting and Control

System Mode Adjustment

Privileges to End Users

Data Transmission

Biometrics Project Management

System Concepts and Classification Schemes

Upgrading to a Newer Biometric System?

The Feasibility Study

Application Classifiers

System Design and Interoperability Factors and Considerations

COTS -Based Biometric Systems

Proprietary or Open-Ended System?

Infrastructure Assessment

The Human Equation

Ergonomic Issues

The Feedback System

Population Dynamics

Systems Requirements Analysis

System Requirements Elicitation

System Requirement Analysis and Regulation

System Requirements Documentation

System Requirements Validation

Biometric System Specifications

System Architectural and Processing Designs

Storage and Matching Combinations

Operational Architecture Design—Multimodal Systems

The Information Processing Architecture

Subsystem Analysis and Design

Data Storage Subsystem Design Considerations

Database Management System

Determining the Security Threshold

Subsystem Implementation and Testing

System Deployment and Integration


The Biometric Interface

End User/Administrator Training

System Maintenance

Upgrading an Existing System/Fine Tuning

System Reports and Logs

System Networking

Network Processing Loads

A Networking Scenario

Biometric Networking Topologies

Data Packets

Data Packet Subcomponents

Data Packet Switching

Network Protocols


Client–Server Network Topology

Peer-to-Peer Network Topology


Routing Tables

Network Traffic Collisions

Review of Chapter 3

An Introduction to Biocryptography

Cryptography and Biocryptography

Introduction to Cryptography

Message Scrambling and Descrambling

Encryption and Decryption


Symmetric Key Systems and Asymmetric Key Systems

The Caesar Methodology

Types of Cryptographic Attacks

Polyalphabetic Encryption 210

Block Ciphers

Initialization Vectors

Cipher Block Chaining

Disadvantages of Symmetric Key Cryptography

The Key Distribution Center

Mathematical Algorithms with Symmetric Cryptography

The Hashing Function

Asymmetric Key Cryptography

Keys and Public Private Keys

The Differences between Asymmetric and Symmetric Cryptography

The Disadvantages of Asymmetric Cryptography

The Mathematical Algorithms of Asymmetric Cryptography

The Public Key Infrastructure

The Digital Certificates

How PKI Works

PKI Policies and Rules

The Lightweight Directory Access Protocol

The Public Cryptography Standards

Parameters of Public Keys and Private Keys

How Many Servers?

Security Policies

Securing the Public Keys and the Private Keys

Message Digests and Hashes

Security Vulnerabilities of Hashes

Virtual Private Networks

IP Tunneling

Mobile VPNs

Is the VPN Worth It?

Conducting a VPN Cost–Benefit Analysis

Implementing a VPN

The Components of a VPN Security Policy

End Users and Employees

The Network Requirements

Building Your Own VPN

Impacts to the Web Server

Impacts to the Application Server

Impacts to the Database Server

Impacts to the Firewall

VPN Testing

Implementing a VPN

Managing Public and Private Key Exchanges

The Access Control List

Internet Drafts

Four Vulnerabilities of a Biometrics VPN


The Cipher Biometric Template

Biocryptography Keys

A Review of How Biocryptography Can Be Used to Further Protect

Fingerprint and Iris Templates

Biocryptography in a Single Biometric System

Biocryptography in a Client–Server Biometric System

Biocryptography in a Hosted Biometrics Environment

Biocryptography and VPNs


Review of Chapter 4

An Introduction to Biometrics in the Cloud

Introduction to Cloud Computing

The Basic Concepts and Terminology Surrounding Cloud Computing

The Cloud

Two Distinctions

The IT Resource

On Premise


Asset Scaling

Proportional Costs


Availability and Reliability

SLA Agreements

The Challenges and Risks of Cloud Computing

Security Risk and Challenge

Reduced Operational Governance

Limited Portability

Compliance and Legal Issues

The Functions and Characteristics of Cloud Computing

On-Demand Usage

Ubiquitous Access

Resource Pooling


Measured Usage


Cloud-Computing Delivery Models

Infrastructure as a Service

Platform as a Service

Software as a Service

Cloud-Computing Deployment Models

Public Cloud

Community Cloud

Private Cloud

Hybrid Cloud

The Security Threats Posed to Cloud Computing







Security Risk

Security Controls

Security Mechanisms

Security Policies

Anonymous Attacker

Malicious Service Agent

Trusted Attacker

Malicious Insider

Traffic Eavesdropping

Malicious Intermediary

Denial of Service

Insufficient Authorization

Virtualization Attack

Overlapping Trust Boundaries

Important Mechanisms of Cloud Computing

Load Balancers

Pay-per-Use Monitor

Audit Monitor

Failover System


Resource Clustering

Server Cluster

Database Cluster

Large Data-Set Cluster

Cloud Computing Cost Metrics and Service Quality Mechanisms

Network Usage

Server Usage

Cloud Storage Device Usage

Other Cost Management Considerations

Service Availability Metrics

Service Reliability Metrics

Service Performance Metrics

Service Scalability Metrics

Service Resiliency Metrics

An Introduction to Biometrics in the Cloud

Virtual Servers



A Detailed Example of How Biometrics in the Cloud Would Look Like

A Review of the Advantages and the Disadvantages of Biometrics in the Cloud

About the Author

Ravindra Das was born and raised in West Lafayette, Indiana. He received his undergraduate degree from Purdue University, MS from Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, Illinois, and MBA from Bowling Green State University in international trade and management information systems, respectively.

He has been involved in biometrics for more than 15 years and currently owns a biometrics consultancy firm (Apollo Biometrics) based in Chicago, Illinois. He has been published extensively in Europe.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
COMPUTERS / Machine Theory
POLITICAL SCIENCE / Political Freedom & Security / International Security