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2nd Edition

Biotechnology Fundamentals





ISBN 9781498723428
Published November 23, 2015 by CRC Press
709 Pages 142 Color Illustrations

 
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Book Description

A single source reference covering every aspect of biotechnology, Biotechnology Fundamentals, Second Edition breaks down the basic fundamentals of this discipline, and highlights both conventional and modern approaches unique to the industry. In addition to recent advances and updates relevant to the first edition, the revised work also covers ethics in biotechnology and discusses career possibilities in this growing field.

The book begins with a basic introduction of biotechnology, moves on to more complex topics, and provides relevant examples along the way. Each chapter begins with a brief summary, is illustrated by simple line diagrams, pictures, and tables, and ends with a question session, an assignment, and field trip information. The author also discusses the connection between plant breeding, cheese making, in vitro fertilization, alcohol fermentation, and biotechnology.

Comprised of 15 chapters, this seminal work offers in-depth coverage of topics that include:

  • Genes and Genomics
  • Proteins and Proteomics
  • Recombinant DNA Technology
  • Microbial Biotechnology
  • Agricultural Biotechnology
  • Animal Biotechnology
  • Environmental Biotechnology
  • Medical Biotechnology
  • Nanobiotechnology
  • Product Development in Biotechnology
  • Industrial Biotechnology
  • Ethics in Biotechnology
  • Careers in Biotechnology
  • Laboratory Tutorials

Biotechnology Fundamentals, Second Edition provides a complete introduction of biotechnology to students taking biotechnology or life science courses and offers a detailed overview of the fundamentals to anyone in need of comprehensive information on the subject.

Table of Contents

Introduction to Biotechnology
Learning Objectives
What Is Biotechnology?
Animal Biotechnology
Agricultural Biotechnology
Medical Biotechnology
Industrial Biotechnology
Environmental Biotechnology
Other Emerging Fields of Biotechnology
History of Biotechnology
Human Genome Project
Major Scientific Discoveries in Biotechnology
Biotechnology as the Science of Integration
Bio-Revolution
Ethical and Regulatory Issues in Biotechnology
Future of Biotechnology
Problems
Assignment
Online Resources
References and Further Reading

Genes and Genomics
Learning Objectives
Introduction
Cell as the Building Block of Life
Classification of Cells
Prokaryotic Cell
Eukaryotic Cell
Extracellular Organization
Cell Membrane
Cell Capsule
Flagella
Intracellular Organization
Macromolecules
Genes and Genetics
Cell Division
DNA Replication
DNA Interactions with Proteins
DNA-Modifying Enzymes
DNA Methylation
DNA Mutation
Tools of Biotechnology
Problems
Assignment
References and Further Reading

Proteins and Proteomics
Learning Objectives
Introduction
Significance of Proteins
Protein Biosynthesis
Protein Structure
Protein Folding
Protein Modification
Protein Transport
Protein Dysfunction and Degradation
Regulation of Protein Synthesis
Regulatory Protein
Methods for Protein Analysis
Protein Purification
Tools of Proteomics
Problems
Assignment
References and Further Reading

Recombinant DNA Technology
Learning Objectives
Introduction
Making of Recombinant DNA
Significance of Recombinant DNA Technology
Role of Restriction Enzymes in rDNA Technology
Steps in Gene Cloning
Synthesis of Complete Gene
Polymerase Chain Reaction and Gene Cloning
Significance of Vectors in Recombinant DNA Technology
Classification of Vectors
Integration of the DNA Insert into the Vector
Introduction of the Recombinant DNA into the Suitable Host
Increased Competence of E. Coli by CaCl2 Treatment
Infection by Recombinant DNAs Packaged as Virions
Selection of Recombinant Clones
Identification of Clones Having Recombinant DNAs
Selection of Clone Containing a Specific DNA Insert
Applications of Recombinant DNA Technology
DNA Sequencing
Microarrays
DNA Chips
Isolation of Desired DNA
cDNA Library
Preparation of cDNA
Genomic Library
DNA Libraries
Chemical Synthesis Gene
Applications of Synthetic Oligonucleotides
Problems
Assignments
References and Further Reading

Microbial Biotechnology
Learning Objectives
Introduction
Structural Organization of Microbes
Microbial Metabolism
Microbial Growth
Microbial Genetics
Genetic Recombination in Bacteria
Transposable Genetic Elements
Use of E. Coli in Microbial Cloning
Pathogenic Bacteria
Application of Microbes
Food Microbiology
Microbial Biotechnology
Problems
References and Further Reading

Agricultural Biotechnology
Learning Objectives
Introduction
Plant Breeding
Plant Diseases
Applications of Molecular and Genetic Tools in Agriculture
Herbicide-Tolerant Plants
Pigmentation in Transgenic Plants
Altering the Food Content of Plants
Gene Transfer Methods in Plants
Target Cells for Gene Transformation
Vectors for Gene Transfer
Transformation Techniques Using Agrobacterium
Glucuronidase Gene
Agroinfection and Gene Transfer
DNA-Mediated Gene Transfer
Electroporation for Gene Transfer
Liposome-Mediated Gene Transfer
Gene Transformation Using Pollen
Application of Transgenic Plants
How Safe Are Transgenic Plants?
Bioengineered Plants
Genetically Modified Maize
Terminator Technology
Problems
Assignment
References and Further Reading

Animal Biotechnology
Learning Objectives
Introduction
History of the Use of Animals in Research
Drug Testing in Animals Is Mandatory
Most Commonly Used Animals in Research
Application of Animal Models
Animal Models
Animal Biotechnology
Regulations of Animal Testing
Alternatives to Animal Testing
Problems
Assignment
References and Further Reading

Environmental Biotechnology
Learning Objectives
Introduction
Factors Affecting the Environment
Global Warming
Carbon Footprint
Destruction of Forests
Air Pollution
Major Carbon Dioxide Emission Countries
Greenhouse Effect
Acid Rain
Ocean Acidification
Health Hazards Due to Pollution
Environment Protection by Biotechnology
Bioremediation
Mycoremediation
Wastewater Treatment
Pretreatment Phase
Screening Phase
Sedimentation Phase
Secondary Treatment Phase
Activated Sludge
Filter Beds
Biological Aerated Filters
Nutrient Removal
Nitrogen Removal
Phosphorus Removal
Disinfection of Wastewater
Sludge Disposal
Biofuels
Biodiesel
Biogas
Bioalcohols
Bioethers
Syngas
Solid Biofuels
Second-Generation Biofuels
Third-Generation Biofuels
International Biofuel Efforts
Future of Biofuels
Biodegradable Plastic
Biodegradation by Bacteria
Oil-Eating Bacteria
Biostimulation and Bioaugmentation
Bioleaching
Single-Cell Protein and Biomass from Waste
Vermitechnology
Biosorption
Bacteria
Fungi
Algae
Genetically Engineered Organisms
Problems
Debate
Field Visit
References and Further Reading

Medical Biotechnology
Learning Objectives
Introduction
Antibody Production
Therapeutic Proteins
Stem Cell Transplantation
Bioengineered Skin
Bioengineered Organ Transplantation
Gene Therapy
Molecular Diagnostics
Artificial Blood
Organ Transplant
Cloning
Questions
Assignment
References and Further Reading

Nanobiotechnology
Learning Objectives
Introduction
Nanotechnology
Nanobiotechnology
Applications of Nanobiotechnology
Nanotechnology in the Food Industry
Water Pollution and Nanotechnology
Research Trends
Problems
References and Further Reading

Product Development in Biotechnology
Learning Objectives
Introduction
Methods of Scientific Inquiry
Commercialization of Scientific Discovery
Business Plan
Biotechnology Product Development
Phases of Biotechnology Product Development
Biotechnology Entrepreneurship
Biotechnology Industry: Facts and Figures
Formation of a New Biotechnology Company
Successful Bioentrepreneurship
Biotechnology Products and Intellectual Property Rights
Biotechnology Stock Investment: Pros and Cons
Marketing Trends in Biotechnology
Role of Regulators in Biotechnology Product Development
Certification and Accreditation
Problems
References and Further Reading

Industrial Biotechnology
Learning Objectives
Introduction
Fermenter or Bioreactor
Principle of Fermentation
Production of Biomolecules Using Fermenter Technology
Development Process of Microbial Products
Upstream Bioprocess
Downstream Bioprocess
Bioprocess Automation
Industrial Application of Microbes
Industrial Production of Healthcare Products
Problems
References and Further Reading

Ethics in Biotechnology
Learning Objectives
Introduction
Genetically Modified Foods and Plants
Use of Animals as Experimental Models
Use of Humans as Experimental Models
Xenotransplantation
Genetic Screening
Biometrics
DNA Fingerprinting
Organ Donation and Transplantation
Euthanasia
Neuroethics
Assisted Reproductive Technology
Embryonic Stem Cell Research
Questions
Assignments
References and Further Reading

Careers in Biotechnology
Learning Objectives
Introduction
Education and Investment in Biotechnology
Research and Development in Biotechnology
Biotechnology Industry and Products
Biotechnology Status in the United States
Career Opportunities in Biotechnology
Entry-Level Job Positions in Biotechnology
Administration
Which Job Is Good For Me?
Why Are R&D Jobs the Most Challenging?
Salary and Incentives in Biotechnology
Problems
Assignments
Field Visit
References and Further Reading

Laboratory Tutorials
Laboratory Experiments
Laboratory Safety
Good Laboratory Practices for Biotechnology Labs
General Laboratory Techniques
General Principles of Animal Handling
Animal Anesthesia
Animal Histology
Blood Collection in Animals
Histology and Microscopy
Separation Techniques
Microbiology Techniques
Biochemistry Techniques
Molecular Techniques
Genetic Techniques
Agricultural Biotechnology
Microbial Biotechnology

References

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Author(s)

Biography

Firdos Alam Khan is a professor and chairperson of the School of Life Sciences, Manipal University, Dubai, United Arab Emirates (UAE). He earned his PhD from Rashtrasant Tukadoji Maharaj Nagpur University, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India, in 1997. He has more than 21 years of research and teaching experience in various domains of biotechnology. His area of expertise includes stem cell technology and neuroscience. He has written numerous articles in various national and international journals in the areas of neuroscience, neuropharmcology, and stem cell biology, and has been an editorial board member of the EC Microbiology and MOJ Immunology scientific journals.

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Author - Firdos Alam Khan
Author

Firdos Alam Khan

Professor & Chairperson School of Life Sciences, Manipal University Dubai
Dubai

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Reviews

"Dr. Khan’s Biotechnology Fundamentals serves as a great introduction to the field; presenting the various topics with clear definitions along with real-world examples and applications. In this second edition, Dr. Khan has included an introduction to several new exciting interdisciplinary areas such as biorobotics, biomimetics and epigenetics. These are all relatively new areas in biotechnology that show great promise and are exciting areas to explore."
—Alexandra Gorgevska, Palm Beach State College, Lake Worth, Florida, USA

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