2nd Edition

Biotechnology Fundamentals

By Firdos Alam Khan Copyright 2016
    710 Pages
    by CRC Press

    709 Pages 142 Color Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    A single source reference covering every aspect of biotechnology, Biotechnology Fundamentals, Second Edition breaks down the basic fundamentals of this discipline, and highlights both conventional and modern approaches unique to the industry. In addition to recent advances and updates relevant to the first edition, the revised work also covers ethics in biotechnology and discusses career possibilities in this growing field.

    The book begins with a basic introduction of biotechnology, moves on to more complex topics, and provides relevant examples along the way. Each chapter begins with a brief summary, is illustrated by simple line diagrams, pictures, and tables, and ends with a question session, an assignment, and field trip information. The author also discusses the connection between plant breeding, cheese making, in vitro fertilization, alcohol fermentation, and biotechnology.

    Comprised of 15 chapters, this seminal work offers in-depth coverage of topics that include:

    • Genes and Genomics
    • Proteins and Proteomics
    • Recombinant DNA Technology
    • Microbial Biotechnology
    • Agricultural Biotechnology
    • Animal Biotechnology
    • Environmental Biotechnology
    • Medical Biotechnology
    • Nanobiotechnology
    • Product Development in Biotechnology
    • Industrial Biotechnology
    • Ethics in Biotechnology
    • Careers in Biotechnology
    • Laboratory Tutorials

    Biotechnology Fundamentals, Second Edition provides a complete introduction of biotechnology to students taking biotechnology or life science courses and offers a detailed overview of the fundamentals to anyone in need of comprehensive information on the subject.

    Introduction to Biotechnology
    Learning Objectives
    What Is Biotechnology?
    Animal Biotechnology
    Agricultural Biotechnology
    Medical Biotechnology
    Industrial Biotechnology
    Environmental Biotechnology
    Other Emerging Fields of Biotechnology
    History of Biotechnology
    Human Genome Project
    Major Scientific Discoveries in Biotechnology
    Biotechnology as the Science of Integration
    Ethical and Regulatory Issues in Biotechnology
    Future of Biotechnology
    Online Resources
    References and Further Reading

    Genes and Genomics
    Learning Objectives
    Cell as the Building Block of Life
    Classification of Cells
    Prokaryotic Cell
    Eukaryotic Cell
    Extracellular Organization
    Cell Membrane
    Cell Capsule
    Intracellular Organization
    Genes and Genetics
    Cell Division
    DNA Replication
    DNA Interactions with Proteins
    DNA-Modifying Enzymes
    DNA Methylation
    DNA Mutation
    Tools of Biotechnology
    References and Further Reading

    Proteins and Proteomics
    Learning Objectives
    Significance of Proteins
    Protein Biosynthesis
    Protein Structure
    Protein Folding
    Protein Modification
    Protein Transport
    Protein Dysfunction and Degradation
    Regulation of Protein Synthesis
    Regulatory Protein
    Methods for Protein Analysis
    Protein Purification
    Tools of Proteomics
    References and Further Reading

    Recombinant DNA Technology
    Learning Objectives
    Making of Recombinant DNA
    Significance of Recombinant DNA Technology
    Role of Restriction Enzymes in rDNA Technology
    Steps in Gene Cloning
    Synthesis of Complete Gene
    Polymerase Chain Reaction and Gene Cloning
    Significance of Vectors in Recombinant DNA Technology
    Classification of Vectors
    Integration of the DNA Insert into the Vector
    Introduction of the Recombinant DNA into the Suitable Host
    Increased Competence of E. Coli by CaCl2 Treatment
    Infection by Recombinant DNAs Packaged as Virions
    Selection of Recombinant Clones
    Identification of Clones Having Recombinant DNAs
    Selection of Clone Containing a Specific DNA Insert
    Applications of Recombinant DNA Technology
    DNA Sequencing
    DNA Chips
    Isolation of Desired DNA
    cDNA Library
    Preparation of cDNA
    Genomic Library
    DNA Libraries
    Chemical Synthesis Gene
    Applications of Synthetic Oligonucleotides
    References and Further Reading

    Microbial Biotechnology
    Learning Objectives
    Structural Organization of Microbes
    Microbial Metabolism
    Microbial Growth
    Microbial Genetics
    Genetic Recombination in Bacteria
    Transposable Genetic Elements
    Use of E. Coli in Microbial Cloning
    Pathogenic Bacteria
    Application of Microbes
    Food Microbiology
    Microbial Biotechnology
    References and Further Reading

    Agricultural Biotechnology
    Learning Objectives
    Plant Breeding
    Plant Diseases
    Applications of Molecular and Genetic Tools in Agriculture
    Herbicide-Tolerant Plants
    Pigmentation in Transgenic Plants
    Altering the Food Content of Plants
    Gene Transfer Methods in Plants
    Target Cells for Gene Transformation
    Vectors for Gene Transfer
    Transformation Techniques Using Agrobacterium
    Glucuronidase Gene
    Agroinfection and Gene Transfer
    DNA-Mediated Gene Transfer
    Electroporation for Gene Transfer
    Liposome-Mediated Gene Transfer
    Gene Transformation Using Pollen
    Application of Transgenic Plants
    How Safe Are Transgenic Plants?
    Bioengineered Plants
    Genetically Modified Maize
    Terminator Technology
    References and Further Reading

    Animal Biotechnology
    Learning Objectives
    History of the Use of Animals in Research
    Drug Testing in Animals Is Mandatory
    Most Commonly Used Animals in Research
    Application of Animal Models
    Animal Models
    Animal Biotechnology
    Regulations of Animal Testing
    Alternatives to Animal Testing
    References and Further Reading

    Environmental Biotechnology
    Learning Objectives
    Factors Affecting the Environment
    Global Warming
    Carbon Footprint
    Destruction of Forests
    Air Pollution
    Major Carbon Dioxide Emission Countries
    Greenhouse Effect
    Acid Rain
    Ocean Acidification
    Health Hazards Due to Pollution
    Environment Protection by Biotechnology
    Wastewater Treatment
    Pretreatment Phase
    Screening Phase
    Sedimentation Phase
    Secondary Treatment Phase
    Activated Sludge
    Filter Beds
    Biological Aerated Filters
    Nutrient Removal
    Nitrogen Removal
    Phosphorus Removal
    Disinfection of Wastewater
    Sludge Disposal
    Solid Biofuels
    Second-Generation Biofuels
    Third-Generation Biofuels
    International Biofuel Efforts
    Future of Biofuels
    Biodegradable Plastic
    Biodegradation by Bacteria
    Oil-Eating Bacteria
    Biostimulation and Bioaugmentation
    Single-Cell Protein and Biomass from Waste
    Genetically Engineered Organisms
    Field Visit
    References and Further Reading

    Medical Biotechnology
    Learning Objectives
    Antibody Production
    Therapeutic Proteins
    Stem Cell Transplantation
    Bioengineered Skin
    Bioengineered Organ Transplantation
    Gene Therapy
    Molecular Diagnostics
    Artificial Blood
    Organ Transplant
    References and Further Reading

    Learning Objectives
    Applications of Nanobiotechnology
    Nanotechnology in the Food Industry
    Water Pollution and Nanotechnology
    Research Trends
    References and Further Reading

    Product Development in Biotechnology
    Learning Objectives
    Methods of Scientific Inquiry
    Commercialization of Scientific Discovery
    Business Plan
    Biotechnology Product Development
    Phases of Biotechnology Product Development
    Biotechnology Entrepreneurship
    Biotechnology Industry: Facts and Figures
    Formation of a New Biotechnology Company
    Successful Bioentrepreneurship
    Biotechnology Products and Intellectual Property Rights
    Biotechnology Stock Investment: Pros and Cons
    Marketing Trends in Biotechnology
    Role of Regulators in Biotechnology Product Development
    Certification and Accreditation
    References and Further Reading

    Industrial Biotechnology
    Learning Objectives
    Fermenter or Bioreactor
    Principle of Fermentation
    Production of Biomolecules Using Fermenter Technology
    Development Process of Microbial Products
    Upstream Bioprocess
    Downstream Bioprocess
    Bioprocess Automation
    Industrial Application of Microbes
    Industrial Production of Healthcare Products
    References and Further Reading

    Ethics in Biotechnology
    Learning Objectives
    Genetically Modified Foods and Plants
    Use of Animals as Experimental Models
    Use of Humans as Experimental Models
    Genetic Screening
    DNA Fingerprinting
    Organ Donation and Transplantation
    Assisted Reproductive Technology
    Embryonic Stem Cell Research
    References and Further Reading

    Careers in Biotechnology
    Learning Objectives
    Education and Investment in Biotechnology
    Research and Development in Biotechnology
    Biotechnology Industry and Products
    Biotechnology Status in the United States
    Career Opportunities in Biotechnology
    Entry-Level Job Positions in Biotechnology
    Which Job Is Good For Me?
    Why Are R&D Jobs the Most Challenging?
    Salary and Incentives in Biotechnology
    Field Visit
    References and Further Reading

    Laboratory Tutorials
    Laboratory Experiments
    Laboratory Safety
    Good Laboratory Practices for Biotechnology Labs
    General Laboratory Techniques
    General Principles of Animal Handling
    Animal Anesthesia
    Animal Histology
    Blood Collection in Animals
    Histology and Microscopy
    Separation Techniques
    Microbiology Techniques
    Biochemistry Techniques
    Molecular Techniques
    Genetic Techniques
    Agricultural Biotechnology
    Microbial Biotechnology



    Firdos Alam Khan is a professor and chairperson of the School of Life Sciences, Manipal University, Dubai, United Arab Emirates (UAE). He earned his PhD from Rashtrasant Tukadoji Maharaj Nagpur University, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India, in 1997. He has more than 21 years of research and teaching experience in various domains of biotechnology. His area of expertise includes stem cell technology and neuroscience. He has written numerous articles in various national and international journals in the areas of neuroscience, neuropharmcology, and stem cell biology, and has been an editorial board member of the EC Microbiology and MOJ Immunology scientific journals.

    "Dr. Khan’s Biotechnology Fundamentals serves as a great introduction to the field; presenting the various topics with clear definitions along with real-world examples and applications. In this second edition, Dr. Khan has included an introduction to several new exciting interdisciplinary areas such as biorobotics, biomimetics and epigenetics. These are all relatively new areas in biotechnology that show great promise and are exciting areas to explore."
    —Alexandra Gorgevska, Palm Beach State College, Lake Worth, Florida, USA