Biotechnology: Secondary Metabolites, 2nd Edition (Hardback) book cover

Biotechnology

Secondary Metabolites, 2nd Edition

CRC Press

586 pages

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Description

This book provides new information relating recent advances made in the field of plant secondary products. Besides the updation of chapters this edition also includes chapters on secondary metabolites of microorganisms (fungi and lichen).

Table of Contents

Preface

List of Contributors

1. Biotechnology for Medicinal Plants: Research Need

J.M. Merillon and K.G. Ramawat

I. Introduction

II. Medicinal Plants Exploration

III. Resources: Wild and Cultivated Plants

IV. Role of Biotechnological Approaches

Development of Seed Material for Domestication

Improvement — Somaclonal Variation and Genetic

Engineering

Understanding Metabolic Pathways

New Compounds/Derivatives Production

Scaling-up Technology Through Bioreactors

Plant Molecular Farming

Metabolomics

V. Conclusions

References

VI. Further Readings

2. Secondary Plant Products in Nature

K.G. Ramawat

I. Introduction

II. Alkaloids

A. Definition

B. Biosynthesis of Alkaloids

C. Occurrence of Alkaloids

D. Distribution in Animal Kingdom and Lower Plants

E. Classifications of Alkaloids

F. Biological Functions of Alkaloids

III. Other Metabolites

A. Plant Amines

B. Non-protein Amino Acids in Plants

C. Quinones

D. Resins

E. Steroids

F. Phenylpropanoids

G. Polyisoprene (Rubber)

H. Phenolics

I. Flavours and Colours

J. Insecticides of Plant Origin

IV. Conclusions

References

V. Further Readings

3. Factors Affecting the Production of

Secondary Metabolites

K.G. Ramawat and Meeta Mathur

I. Introduction

II. Culture Conditions

The Environment

III. Culture Initiation

IV. Time-course Study of Growth and

Secondary Metabolite Production

V. Optimization

A. Physical Factors

B. Effect of Nutrients

Use of Elicitors

VII. Selection of Clones

A. Variability in Field-grown Materials

B. State of Differentiation

C. Producer/Non-producer Cells

D. Plating and Selection

VIII. Clonal Stability

IX. Flow Cytometry

X. Optimization and Selection

XI. Selection Parameters

XII. Assessment of Somaclonal Variation

XIII. Prospects

References

XIV. Further Readings

4. Production of Food Additives

G.A. Ravishankar, N. Bhagyalakshmi and S. Ramachandra Rao

I. Introduction

II. Colours

A. Anthocyanins

B. Betalaines

C. Crocin and Crocetins

D. Capsaicin and Other Capsaicinoids

III. Flavours

A. Vanilla

B. Garlic and Onion

IV. Sweeteners

A. Steviosides

B. Thaumatin

V. Safety Aspects

References

5. Production of Insecticides

Amita Pal

I. Introduction

II. Botanical Insecticides

A. Phytoecdysterones

B. Azadirachtin

C. Rotenoids

D. Pyrethrins

E. Nicotine and Anabasine

F. Quassin

G. Limonene

H. Ryania

I. Sabadilla

X. Optimization and Selection

XI. Selection Parameters

XII. Assessment of Somaclonal Variation

XIII. Prospects

References

XIV. Further Readings

4. Production of Food Additives

G.A. Ravishankar, N. Bhagyalakshmi and S. Ramachandra Rao

I. Introduction

II. Colours

A. Anthocyanins

B. Betalaines

C. Crocin and Crocetins

D. Capsaicin and Other Capsaicinoids

III. Flavours

A. Vanilla

B. Garlic and Onion

IV. Sweeteners

A. Steviosides

B. Thaumatin

V. Safety Aspects

References

5. Production of Insecticides

Amita Pal

I. Introduction

II. Botanical Insecticides

A. Phytoecdysterones

B. Azadirachtin

C. Rotenoids

D. Pyrethrins

E. Nicotine and Anabasine

F. Quassin

G. Limonene

H. Ryania

I. Sabadilla

VI. Accumulation of Alkaloids

A. Uptake and Storage

B. Permealization

C. Site of Alkaloid Accumulation

D. Phenylalkylamines (Ephedra Alkaloids)

E. Pyridine Alkaloids

F. Tropane Alkaloids

G. Quinolizidine and Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids

H. Isoquinoline Alkaloids

I. Quinoline (Cinchona) Alkaloids

J. Monoterpene Indole Alkaloids

K. Purine Alkaloids

L. Ruta Alkaloids

VII. Conclusions

VIII. Prospects

References

8. Production of Steroids and Saponins

Anupama Wagle, G.D. Kelkar and M.R. Heble

I. Introduction

II. Saponins

A. Dioscorea

B. Agave

C. Glycyrrhiza

D. Aesculus

E. Panax

III. Cardiac Glycosides

A. Digitalis

B. Strophanthus

C. Urginea

IV. Other Steroids

A. Withania somnifera

B. Holarrhena

C. Solanum

V. Conclusions

References

9. Understanding the Regulatory Mechanism

of Secondary Metabolite Production

J.M. Merillon and K.G. Ramawat

I. Introduction

II. Plant Growth Regulators, Elicitors, Sugars and Signal

Transduction

III. Protein and RNA

IV. Genetic Manipulations

A. Choice of Gene

B. Manipulation of Biosynthetic Pathways

V. Conclusions

References

10. Production of Secondary Metabolites by Bioconversion

Niesko Pras and Herman J. Woerdenbag

I. Introduction

II. General Principles of Bioconversion

III. Systems Applied for Bioconversion

A. Freely Suspended Plant Cells

B. Immobilized Plant Cells

C. Enzyme Preparations

IV. Kinetics of Immobilized Systems

V. Bioconversion of Water-insoluble Precursors

VI. Bioconversion of Synthetic Precursors

VII. New Developments

VIII. Final Consideration

References

11. Genetic Transformation for Production of

Secondary Metabolites

Sumita Jha

I. Introduction

II. Genetic Manipulation of Natural-Product Pathways

III. Genetic Transformation for Development of

Transformed Organ Cultures using Agrobacterium

A. Relationship between Cell Organization,

Differentiation and Secondary Metabolism

B. Organ Cultures

C. Transformed Organ Cultures

D. Agrobacterium and Transformation Process

IV. Applications of Transformed Root Cultures

V. Experimental Procedure for Production of

Transformed Hairy Roots in Artemisia annua Linn.

VI. Experimental Procedure for Production of Transformed

Shooty Teratomas in Coleus forskohlii Briq.

VII. Prospects

Acknowledgement

References

VIII. Further Reading

12. Large-scale Production in Bioreactors

J.M. Merillon

I. Introduction

II. Plant Cell Physiology

III. Plant Cell Culture Processes

A. Introduction

B. Batch Cultivation

C. Multi-stage Batch Cultivation

D. Feed-Batch Cultivation

E. Continuous Cultivation

F. Semicontinuous Cultivation

G. Immobilized Cell Cultivation

IV. Bioreactor System Design and Operation

A. Sterilization

B. Oxygen Supply

C. Bioreactor Types

V. Applications

A. Production of Secondary Metabolites

B. Organ Culture

C. Hairy Root Culture

D. Commercialization

V. Conclusions

References

13. Production of Ergot Alkaloids from Claviceps

Arun Kumar and R. Raj Bhansali

I. Introduction

II. Historical Background

III. Natural Occurrence

IV. Alkaloids

A. Formation and Production

B. Chemical Properties

C. Physical Properties

D. Pharmacological Properties

E. Chemistry

F. Biosynthesis

V. Artificial Culture

VI. Conclusion

References

14. Lichen Products

Wanda Quilhot, Cecilia Rubio and Ernesto Fernandez

I. Introduction

II. Chemistry of Lichen Substances

III. Role of Lichen Metabolites in the Lichen Thallus

IV. Biological

A. Activity of Lichen Extracts and Lichen Compounds

B. Anticancer-Antiviral Activity

C. Inhibitory Enzyme and Antioxidant Activity

D. Analgesic, Anti-inflammatory,

Antipyretic and Other Medicinal

E. Antiprotozoa Activity

F. Antifeedant Activity

G. Phototoxicidal and Other Activity in Plants

H. Herbicidal Activity

I. Plant Growth Activities

J. Perfumes

V. The Future

References

15. Chinese Herbal Drug Industry: Past,

Present and Future

Lixin Zhang and Wei Jia

I. Introduction

II. The Development of the Chinese Herbal Drug Industry

III. Modernization of TCM

A. The Status of Medicinal Plant Resources in China

B. Status of Chinese Prepared Medicinal Herbs

C. Status of TCM Manufacturing Enterprises

D. Status of Plant Extracts

E. Status of Pre-clinic and Clinical Research

IV. The Internationalization of TCM

A. Open Dialogue and Mutual Understanding

Among All Parties Involved in Health Care System

B. Deciphering the Preventive Nature of TCM

C. Respect and Protect Intellectual Property

D. Safety Issues of TCM Need to be Seriously Evaluated

E. The Small Scale and Limited Capability of

Herbal Drug Enterprises

V. Closing Remarks

Acknowledgments

References

16. Secondary Metabolites in in vitro Cultures of Ruta

graveolens L. and Ruta graveolens ssp. divaricata

(Tenore) Gams

Halina Ekiert and Franz Ch. Czygan

I. Distribution and Chemistry of the Investigated Plants

A. Ruta graveolens L. (garden rue = common rue)

B. Ruta graveolens ssp. divaricata (Tenore) Gams

II. Groups of Secondary Metabolites Investigated in vitro —

Their Chemical Characteristics, Distribution in Plant

Kingdom and Biological Properties

A. Linear Furanocoumarins

B. Phenolic Acids

C. Arbutin

III. Production of the Investigated Metabolites in

Plant in vitro Cultures

A. Linear Furanocoumarins

B. Phenolic Acids

C. Arbutin

IV. Studies from Our Laboratory

A. Linear Furanocoumarins and other Coumarin

Compounds Isolated as Main Fractions from Biomass

Cultured in vitro

B. Accumulation of Linear Furanocoumarins

C. Accumulation of Phenolic Acids

D. Biotransformation of Hydroquinone into Arbutin

V. Conclusions and Prospects

VI. Experimental

A. Origin of Cultures Under Study

B. Initial Stationary Liquid Cultures

C. Experimental Cultures

Acknowledgement

References

17. Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Activity of Extracts and

Secondary Metabolites Obtained from Plants and

Lichens of Patagonia Austral.

R.D. Enriz, M.L. Freile, E. Correche and M.J. Gomez-Lechon

I. Introduction

A. Natural Products as Sources for Lead Structures

B. Cell Culture Systems in Toxicity Testing

II. Techniques, Material and Methods

A. Plant Material

B. Extraction and Isolation of Test Compounds

C. Microorganisms and Media

D. Antimicrobial Assays

E. Antifungal in vivo Assay

F. Antifungal Activity

G. Application of the Test Compounds

H. Acute Toxicity Test

I. Toxicity of Berberine to Embryo-larval

Stages of Bufo arenarum (H). Test Conditions

III. In vitro/in vivo Antimicrobial Activity of Aqueous

Extracts and of Berberine Isolated from Berberis

heterophilla

IV. Antibacterial, Cytotoxic and Apoptotic Effects on

Hepatocytes of Secondary Metabolites Obtained from

Lichens of Patagonia

A. Antibacterial and Cytotoxic Activity

B. Apoptotic Activity

V. Concluding Remarks

Acknowledgements

References

18. Tools and Techniques for the Study of

Plant Tissue Culture

K.G. Ramawat and Meeta Mathur

I. Microscopy

II. Micrometry

III. Cell Counting by Haemocytometer

IV. Autoradiography

V. Spectrophotometry

A. UV-VIS Spectrophotometry

B. Fluorescence Spectrophotometry

VI. Centrifugation

A. Analytical Model

B. Preparative Model

C. Application

D. Methods of Separation

VII. Gel Filtration

VIII. Chromatography

A. Column Chromatography

B. Paper Chromatography

C. Thin-layer Chromatography

D. Adsorption Chromatography

E. lon-exchange Chromatography

F. Affinity Chromatography

G. Gas Liquid Chromatography (GLC)

H. High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC)

IX. Further Readings

19. Practicals

K.G. Ramawat

I. Callus and Cell Culture

A. Initiation of Callus

B. Initiation of Suspension Culture

C. Fresh Weight and Dry Weight Determinations

II. Cell Viability Determination using Fluorescein Diacetate

III. Diosgenin Estimation using Colorimeter

IV. Solasodine Quantification

V. Indole Alkaloid Production by Catharanthus roseus

VI. TLC of Opium Alkaloids

VII. Other Alkaloids

VIII. Qualitative Tests

A. Demonstration of Presence of Sterols

B. Leuco-anthocyanin Test

C. Saponin Test

D. Phenol Test

E. Flavonoid Test

IX. Further Readings

X. Annexures

Index

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
NAT001000
NATURE / Animals / General