Biothermodynamics: The Role of Thermodynamics in Biochemical Engineering, 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Biothermodynamics

The Role of Thermodynamics in Biochemical Engineering, 1st Edition

Edited by Urs von Stockar, Luuk A. M. van der Wielen

EPFL Press

380 pages

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pub: 2013-05-30
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Description

This book covers the fundamentals of the rapidly growing field of biothermodynamics, showing how thermodynamics can best be applied to applications and processes in biochemical engineering. It describes the rigorous application of thermodynamics in biochemical engineering to rationalize bioprocess development and obviate a substantial fraction of this need for tedious experimental work. As such, this book will appeal to a diverse group of readers, ranging from students and professors in biochemical engineering, to scientists and engineers, for whom it will be a valuable reference.

Table of Contents

Fundamentals

THE ROLE OF THERMODYNAM ICS IN BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING

Basic remarks on thermodynamics in biochemical engineering

Fundamental concepts in equilibrium thermodynamics

Charged species, gels and other soft systems

Stability and activity of biomacromolecules

Thermodynamics of live cells

Thermodynamic analysis of metabolism

Conclusions

References

PHASE EQUILIBRIUM IN NON-ELECTROLYTE SYSTEMS

Introduction

Essential formal relations

1 Criteria for equilibrium

Liquid-liquid equilibria

Solid-liquid equilibria

References

Virial Expansion for Chemical Potentials in a Dilute Solution for Calculation of Liquid-Liquid Equilibria

Introduction

Example of protein separation

References

The thermodynamics of electrically charged molecules in solution

Why do electrically charged molecules call for a particular thermodynamic treatment?

The thermodynamics of electrolytes

Electrostatics

Empirical and advanced ion activity coefficient models

References

WATER

Introduction

Phenomenological aspects of water

M olecular properties of water

Water as a solvent

Further reading

Charged Species, Gels, and other Soft Systems

POLYMERS, POLYELECTROL YTES AND GELS

Flory’s Theory of polymer solutions

Electric Charge on a weak polyelectrolyte

Hydrogels: Elementary Equations for Idealized Networks and Their Swelling Behavior

Appendix: Entropy of mixing for polymer solutions

References

SELF-ASSEMBLY OF AMPHIPHILIC MOLECULES

Introduction

Self-assembly as phase separation

Different types of self-assembled structures

Aggregation as a "start-stop" process: size and shape of self-assembled structures

Mass action model for micellization

Factors that influence the critical micelle concentration

Bilayer structures

Reverse micelles

Microemulsions

Self-assembled structures in applications

References

MOLECULAR THERMODYNAMICS OF PARTITIONING IN AQUEOUS TWO-PHASE SYSTEMS

Introduction

Flory–Huggins theory applied to aqueous two-phase partition systems

Dependence of partitioning on system variables

Simple interpretation of the effects of added electrolyte

Calculation of phase diagrams and partitioning

Conclusions

References

GENERALIZATION OF THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES FOR SELECTION OF BIOSEPARATION PROCESSES

Phase behavior in Bioseparation Processes

Generalized correlation

Generalized polarity scales

Conclusions

APPENDIX

References

Protein Precipitation with Salts and/or Polymers

Introduction

Equation of state

The potential of mean force

Precipitation calculations

Generalization to a multicomponent solution.

Crystallization

References

MULTICOMPONENT ION EXCHANGE EQUILIBRIA OF WEAK ELECTROLYTE BIOMOLECULES

Introduction

Multi-component ion exchange of weak electrolytes

Experimental case studies

Conclusions

References

Stability and Activity of Biomacromolecules

PROTEINS

Introduction

The amino acids in proteins

The three-dimensional structure of protein molecules in aqueous solution

Non-covalent interactions that determine the structure of a protein molecule in water

Stability of protein structure in aqueous solution

Thermodynamic analysis of protein structure stability

Reversibility of protein denaturation aggregation of unfolded protein molecules

References

THERMODYNAMICS IN MULTIPHASE BIOCATALYSIS

Why multiphase biocatalysis?

Thermodynamics of enzymatic reactions in aqueous systems

Non-aqueous media for biocatalysis.

Using enyzmes in organic solvents

Phase equilibria in multiphase enyzmatic reactions

Whole cells in organic solvents

List of symbols

References

Thermodynamics of the Physical Stability of Protein Solutions

Introduction

Factors influencing protein stability

Mechanism of protein aggregation

Summary and conclusions

References

Measuring, Interpreting and Modeling the Stabilities and Melting Temperatures of B-Form DNA s that Exhibit a Two-State Helix-to-Coil Transition

Introduction

Methods for measuring duplex DNA melting thermodynamics

Modeling dsDNA stability and the melting transition

Comparing and further improving the performance of NNT models

Final thoughts

References

Thermodynamics in Living Systems

LIVE CELLS AS OPEN NON-EQUILIBRIUM SYSTEMS

Introduction

Balances for open systems

Entropy production, forces and fluxes

Flux-force relationships and coupled processes

The linear energy converter as a model for living systems

Conclusions

References

Miniaturization of Calorimetry: Strengths and Weaknesses for Bioprocess Monitoring and Control

Why miniaturization of calorimeters?

Historical roots

Measurement principle

Calorimetry versus off-gas analysis

Applications of chip-calorimetry

Outlook

References

A thermodynamic approach to predict Black Box model parameters for microbial growth

Introduction

Catabolic energy production

Thermodynamic prediction of the parameters in the Herbert-Pirt substrate distribution relation

Prediction of the qp() relationship

Prediction of the process reaction

Prediction of the hyperbolic substrate uptake kinetic parameters

Influence of temperature and pH on Black Box model parameters

Heat production in biological systems

Conclusion

References

Further reading

BIOTHERMODYNAMICS OF LIVE CELLS:Energy dissipation and heat generation in cellular cultures

Why study heat generation and energy dissipation in biotechnology?

The first law: measuring, interpreting and exploiting heat generation in live cultures

The second law: energy dissipation, driving force and growth

Predicting energy and heat dissipation by calculation

Results: heat generation and Gibbs energy dissipation as a function of biomass yield

Application: prediction of yield coefficients

Discussion and conclusions

Appendix: Example calculation for prediction of growth stoichiometry

References

THERMODYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS

Introduction

References

Thermodynamics of Metabolism

A THERMODYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF DICARBOXYLIC ACID PRODUCTION IN MICROORGANISMS

Introduction

Outline of the approach

Thermodynamics of dicarboxylic acid transport

Genetic engineering of target systems based upon thermodynamic analysis results

Conclusion.

Appendices

References

THERMODYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF METABOLIC PATHWAYS

Introduction

Thermodynamic feasibility analysis of individual metabolic pathways

Estimation of observable standard Gibbs energies of reaction

Materials and methods [22]

Results and discussion

Conclusions

References

Index.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
SCI010000
SCIENCE / Biotechnology
SCI013060
SCIENCE / Chemistry / Industrial & Technical