Blasting Principles for Open Pit Mining, Set of 2 Volumes: 1st Edition (Pack) book cover

Blasting Principles for Open Pit Mining, Set of 2 Volumes

1st Edition

By William A. Hustrulid

CRC Press

1,038 pages

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Pack: 9789054104582
pub: 2005-08-25
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Divided into two volumes, this accessible work describes the principles involved in hard rock blasting as applied to open pit mines. A large number of examples illustrate the application of the principles. The first volume introduces basic engineering concepts and the building blocks that make up a blast design. The second volume goes into more depth to provide a better understanding of the fundamental concepts involved in rock blasting. Both volumes provide a basis for engineers to improve their blasting operations and their understanding of blasting papers that appear in technical literature.

Table of Contents

Volume 1

1. An Historical Perspective

1.1. Introduction

1.2. Mine design factors

1.3. The steam shovel

1.4. Haulage

1.5. Drilling and blasting

1.6. Production statistics

1.7. Production strategy then and now

References and bibliography

2. The Fragmentation System Concept

2.1. Introduction

2.2. Mine-mill fragmentation systems

2.3. The energy required in fragmentation

2.4. Fragmentation evaluation

2.5. Optimum fragmentation curves

2.6. Fragmentation systems engineering in practice

2.7. Summary

References and bibliography

3. Explosives as a Source of Fragmentation Energy

3.1. Explosive power

3.2. Pressure-volume curves

3.3. Explosive strength

3.4. Energy use

3.5. Summary

References and bibliography

4. Preliminary Blast Design Guidelines

4.1. Introduction

4.2. Blast design rationale

4.3. Ratios for initial design

4.4. Ratio-based blast design example

4.5. The Ash design standards

4.6. Determination of KB

4.7. Simulation of different design alternatives

4.8. Rock structure and blast pattern design

4.9. Measure-while-drilling systems

4.10. Rock blastability

4.11. Fragmentation prediction

References and bibliography

5. Drilling Patterns and Hole Sequencing

5.1. Blast round terminology

5.2. Energy coverage

5.3. The influence of face shape

5.4. One and two row blasts

5.5. Size and shape of blasts

5.6. Some sequencing principles

References and bibliography

6. Sinking Cut Design

6.1. Introduction

6.2. Bench blasting zone

6.3. The shallow zone

6.4. The transition region

6.5. Sinking cut example

References and bibliography

7. Bulk Blasting Agents

7.1. Introduction

7.2. ANFO

7.3. Aluminized ANFO

7.4. Light ANFO

7.5. Water gels/slurries

7.6. Emulsions

7.7. Heavy ANFO

References and bibliography

8. Initiation Systems

8.1. Introduction

8.2. Initiation and propagation of the detonation front

8.3. Primers and boosters

8.4. The end initiation of explosive columns

8.5. The side initiation of explosives

8.6. Initiating devices

8.7. Blast sequencing

8.8. Initiation example

References and bibliography

9. Environmental Effects

9.1. Ground motion

9.2. Airblast

9.3. Flyrock

References and bibliography

10. Perimeter Blasting

10.1. Introduction

10.2. Tailoring the energy of explosives

10.3. Special damage control techniques

10.4. Perimeter control design approaches

References and bibliography

Volume 2

11. Fundamentals of Explosives

11.1. Design of explosives

11.2. A simplified calculation of blasthole conditions

11.3. Detailed analysis of explosion parameters

References and bibliography

12. Blasting in the Absence of a Free Surface

12.1. Blasting with a long cylindrical charge

12.2. Blasting with a spherical charge

References and bibliography

13. The Effect of the Shock Wave

13.1. Introduction

13.2. Wave and particle velocity

13.3. Wave energy and momentum

13.4. Spalling

13.5. Assistance/retardation of crack growth

References and bibliography

14. Attenuation

14.1. Introduction

14.2. Plain wave damping in a continuous bar

14.3. Plain wave damping in a discontinuous bar

14.4. Wave attenuation and the 'Q' factor

14.5. Waveform frequency analysis

14.6. Laboratory studies of attenuation

References and bibliography

15. Spherical Charges

15.1. Introduction

15.2. The field studies

15.3. A practical demonstration of some key concepts

15.4. Single shot results in lithonia granite

15.5. Multiple shot results in lithonia granite

15.6. Effect of explosive type

15.7. Application to other rock types

References and bibliography

16. Cylindrical Charges

16.1. Introduction

16.2. The basic string charge model

16.3. The Starfield seed waveform approach

16.4. Field confirmation of the seed waveform approach

16.5. The spherical charge model

16.6. The effect of subdrilling on bench toe breakage

References and bibliography

17. Decoupling

17.1. Basic concept

17.2. USBM field decoupling experiments

17.3. THe USBM predictive model

17.4. A power-law based predictive model

17.5. Exponential law-based radial strain model

17.6. Favreau-based radial strain model

17.7. Decoupling experiments using cylindrical charges

References and bibliography

18. Heave

18.1. Introduction

18.2. Basic heave action as captured photographically

18.3. Empirical analysis of heave parameters

18.4. The contribution of the shock wave and gas pressure to heave

18.5. An analytical expression for burden face velocity

18.6. Three-dimensional kinematic model of muckpile formation

18.7.Have modelling using the distinct element code, DMC-Blast

18.8. Heave results using other models

References and bibliography

19. The Basics of Cratering

19.1. Introduction

19.2. The cratering concept presented as a thought-experiment

19.3. Equation development

19.4. Experimental procedure

19.5. Analysis of sample cratering data

19.6. Forward design example (Iron Ore Company)

19.7. Forward design example (Dow Chemical Company)

19.8. Evaluation of a current blasting pattern

19.9. Some cratering test results

19.10. Summary

References and bibliography

20. Hydrodynamic-Based Models

20.1. Introduction

20.2. Fundamentals of hydrodynamics

20.3. The problem statement and modelling assumptions

20.4. The velocity potential

20.5. A single charge in a half space

20.6. Modelling of bench blasting geometries

20.7. The field example

20.8 Conclusion

References and bibliography

21. Selected Russian Contributions

21.1. Introduction

21.2. Explosive properties

21.3. Laboratory properties

21.4. Theoretical extent of blast damage zones

21.5. Observations of blast damage zones

21.6. A blastability index

References and bibliography


About the Author

William Hustrulid studied Minerals Engineering at the University of Minnesota. After obtaining his Ph.D. degree in 1968, his career has included responsible roles in both mining academia and in the mining business itself. He has served as Professor of Mining Engineering at the University of Utah and at the Colorado School of Mines and as a Guest Professor at theTechnical University in Luleå, Sweden. In addition, he has held mining R&D positions for companies in the USA, Sweden, and the former Republic of Zaire. He is a Member of the U.S. National Academy of Engineering (NAE) and a Foreign Member of the Swedish Royal Academy of Engineering Sciences (IVA). He currently holds the rank of Professor Emeritus at the University of Utah and manages Hustrulid Mining Services in Spokane,Washington.

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