1st Edition

Blasting Principles for Open Pit Mining, Set of 2 Volumes

    1038 Pages
    by CRC Press

    Divided into two volumes, this accessible work describes the principles involved in hard rock blasting as applied to open pit mines. A large number of examples illustrate the application of the principles. The first volume introduces basic engineering concepts and the building blocks that make up a blast design. The second volume goes into more depth to provide a better understanding of the fundamental concepts involved in rock blasting. Both volumes provide a basis for engineers to improve their blasting operations and their understanding of blasting papers that appear in technical literature.

    Volume 1 

    1. An Historical Perspective
    1.1. Introduction
    1.2. Mine design factors
    1.3. The steam shovel
    1.4. Haulage
    1.5. Drilling and blasting
    1.6. Production statistics
    1.7. Production strategy then and now
    References and bibliography

    2. The Fragmentation System Concept 
    2.1. Introduction
    2.2. Mine-mill fragmentation systems
    2.3. The energy required in fragmentation
    2.4. Fragmentation evaluation
    2.5. Optimum fragmentation curves
    2.6. Fragmentation systems engineering in practice
    2.7. Summary
    References and bibliography

    3. Explosives as a Source of Fragmentation Energy 
    3.1. Explosive power
    3.2. Pressure-volume curves
    3.3. Explosive strength
    3.4. Energy use
    3.5. Summary
    References and bibliography

    4. Preliminary Blast Design Guidelines 
    4.1. Introduction
    4.2. Blast design rationale
    4.3. Ratios for initial design
    4.4. Ratio-based blast design example
    4.5. The Ash design standards
    4.6. Determination of KB 
    4.7. Simulation of different design alternatives
    4.8. Rock structure and blast pattern design
    4.9. Measure-while-drilling systems
    4.10. Rock blastability
    4.11. Fragmentation prediction
    References and bibliography

    5. Drilling Patterns and Hole Sequencing 
    5.1. Blast round terminology
    5.2. Energy coverage
    5.3. The influence of face shape
    5.4. One and two row blasts
    5.5. Size and shape of blasts
    5.6. Some sequencing principles
    References and bibliography

    6. Sinking Cut Design 
    6.1. Introduction
    6.2. Bench blasting zone
    6.3. The shallow zone
    6.4. The transition region
    6.5. Sinking cut example
    References and bibliography

    7. Bulk Blasting Agents 
    7.1. Introduction
    7.2. ANFO
    7.3. Aluminized ANFO
    7.4. Light ANFO
    7.5. Water gels/slurries
    7.6. Emulsions
    7.7. Heavy ANFO
    References and bibliography

    8. Initiation Systems 
    8.1. Introduction
    8.2. Initiation and propagation of the detonation front
    8.3. Primers and boosters
    8.4. The end initiation of explosive columns
    8.5. The side initiation of explosives
    8.6. Initiating devices
    8.7. Blast sequencing
    8.8. Initiation example 
    References and bibliography

    9. Environmental Effects 
    9.1. Ground motion 
    9.2. Airblast
    9.3. Flyrock
    References and bibliography

    10. Perimeter Blasting 
    10.1. Introduction
    10.2. Tailoring the energy of explosives
    10.3. Special damage control techniques
    10.4. Perimeter control design approaches
    References and bibliography

    Volume 2 

    11. Fundamentals of Explosives 
    11.1. Design of explosives
    11.2. A simplified calculation of blasthole conditions
    11.3. Detailed analysis of explosion parameters
    References and bibliography

    12. Blasting in the Absence of a Free Surface
    12.1. Blasting with a long cylindrical charge
    12.2. Blasting with a spherical charge
    References and bibliography 

    13. The Effect of the Shock Wave 
    13.1. Introduction
    13.2. Wave and particle velocity
    13.3. Wave energy and momentum
    13.4. Spalling
    13.5. Assistance/retardation of crack growth
    References and bibliography  

    14. Attenuation 
    14.1. Introduction
    14.2. Plain wave damping in a continuous bar
    14.3. Plain wave damping in a discontinuous bar
    14.4. Wave attenuation and the 'Q' factor
    14.5. Waveform frequency analysis
    14.6. Laboratory studies of attenuation
    References and bibliography 

    15. Spherical Charges 
    15.1. Introduction
    15.2. The field studies
    15.3. A practical demonstration of some key concepts
    15.4. Single shot results in lithonia granite
    15.5. Multiple shot results in lithonia granite
    15.6. Effect of explosive type
    15.7. Application to other rock types
    References and bibliography 

    16. Cylindrical Charges 
    16.1. Introduction
    16.2. The basic string charge model
    16.3. The Starfield seed waveform approach
    16.4. Field confirmation of the seed waveform approach
    16.5. The spherical charge model
    16.6.  The effect of subdrilling on bench toe breakage
    References and bibliography 

    17. Decoupling 
    17.1. Basic concept
    17.2. USBM field decoupling experiments 
    17.3. THe USBM predictive model
    17.4. A power-law based predictive model
    17.5. Exponential law-based radial strain model
    17.6. Favreau-based radial strain model
    17.7. Decoupling experiments using cylindrical charges
    References and bibliography 

    18. Heave 
    18.1. Introduction
    18.2. Basic heave action as captured photographically
    18.3. Empirical analysis of heave parameters
    18.4. The contribution of the shock wave and gas pressure to heave
    18.5. An analytical expression for burden face velocity
    18.6. Three-dimensional kinematic model of muckpile formation
    18.7.Have modelling using the distinct element code, DMC-Blast
    18.8. Heave results using other models
    References and bibliography 

    19. The Basics of Cratering 
    19.1. Introduction
    19.2. The cratering concept presented as a thought-experiment
    19.3. Equation development
    19.4. Experimental procedure
    19.5. Analysis of sample cratering data
    19.6. Forward design example  (Iron Ore Company)
    19.7. Forward design example (Dow Chemical Company) 
    19.8. Evaluation of a current blasting pattern
    19.9. Some cratering test results
    19.10. Summary 
    References and bibliography  

    20. Hydrodynamic-Based Models 
    20.1. Introduction
    20.2. Fundamentals of hydrodynamics
    20.3. The problem statement and modelling assumptions
    20.4. The velocity potential
    20.5. A single charge in a half space
    20.6. Modelling of bench blasting geometries
    20.7. The field example
    20.8 Conclusion
    References and bibliography  

    21. Selected Russian Contributions
    21.1. Introduction
    21.2. Explosive properties
    21.3. Laboratory properties
    21.4. Theoretical extent of blast damage zones
    21.5. Observations of blast damage zones 
    21.6. A blastability index
    References and bibliography  



    William Hustrulid studied Minerals Engineering at the University of Minnesota. After obtaining his Ph.D. degree in 1968, his career has included responsible roles in both mining academia and in the mining business itself. He has served as Professor of Mining Engineering at the University of Utah and at the Colorado School of Mines and as a Guest Professor at theTechnical University in Luleå, Sweden. In addition, he has held mining R&D positions for companies in the USA, Sweden, and the former Republic of Zaire. He is a Member of the U.S. National Academy of Engineering (NAE) and a Foreign Member of the Swedish Royal Academy of Engineering Sciences (IVA). He currently holds the rank of Professor Emeritus at the University of Utah and manages Hustrulid Mining Services in Spokane,Washington.