The idea that socialism could be established in a single country was adopted as an official doctrine by the Soviet Union in 1925, Stalin and Bukharin being the main formulators of the policy. Before this there had been much debate as to whether the only way to secure socialism would be as a result of socialist revolution on a much broader scale, across all Europe or wider still. This book traces the development of ideas about communist utopia from Plato onwards, paying particular attention to debates about universalist ideology versus the possibility for "socialism in one country". The book argues that although the prevailing view is that "socialism in one country" was a sharp break from a long tradition that tended to view socialism as only possible if universal, in fact the territorially confined socialist project had long roots, including in the writings of Marx and Engels.
Introduction 1. Communism as New Jerusalem 2. Communism as Utopia 3. Communism as Armed Fortress 4. Communism as Triple Alliance 5. Permanent Revolution 6. Marxist Patriotism 7. Socialism as Trading Company 8. Socialism as Vast State 9. Russian Socialism Takes a Backseat 10. Marxism in Industrialised Germany 11. Socialism as Autarky 12. Socialism as War Economy 13. Socialisation of the National Economy 14. Socialism in One Country 15. The Great Debate Conclusion