1st Edition

Brain–Computer Interfaces Handbook Technological and Theoretical Advances

Edited By Chang S. Nam, Anton Nijholt, Fabien Lotte Copyright 2018
    814 Pages 79 Color & 129 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    814 Pages 79 Color & 129 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    814 Pages 79 Color & 129 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    Brain–Computer Interfaces Handbook: Technological and Theoretical Advances provides a tutorial and an overview of the rich and multi-faceted world of Brain–Computer Interfaces (BCIs). The authors supply readers with a contemporary presentation of fundamentals, theories, and diverse applications of BCI, creating a valuable resource for anyone involved with the improvement of people’s lives by replacing, restoring, improving, supplementing or enhancing natural output from the central nervous system. It is a useful guide for readers interested in understanding how neural bases for cognitive and sensory functions, such as seeing, hearing, and remembering, relate to real-world technologies. More precisely, this handbook details clinical, therapeutic and human-computer interfaces applications of BCI and various aspects of human cognition and behavior such as perception, affect, and action. It overviews the different methods and techniques used in acquiring and pre-processing brain signals, extracting features, and classifying users’ mental states and intentions. Various theories, models, and empirical findings regarding the ways in which the human brain interfaces with external systems and environments using BCI are also explored. The handbook concludes by engaging ethical considerations, open questions, and challenges that continue to face brain–computer interface research.

    • Features an in-depth look at the different methods and techniques used in acquiring and pre-processing brain signals, extracting features, and classifying the user's intention
    • Covers various theories, models, and empirical findings regarding ways in which the human brain can interface with the systems or external environments
    • Presents applications of BCI technology to understand various aspects of human cognition and behavior such as perception, affect, action, and more
    • Includes clinical trials and individual case studies of the experimental therapeutic applications of BCI
    • Provides human factors and human-computer interface concerns in the design, development, and evaluation of BCIs

    Overall, this handbook provides a synopsis of key technological and theoretical advances that are directly applicable to brain–computer interfacing technologies and can be readily understood and applied by individuals with no formal training in BCI research and development.

    Introduction: Evolution of Brain–Computer Interfaces

    [Fabien Lotte, Chang S. Nam, and Anton Nijholt]

    Part I Brain–Computer Interface Applications

    Section A Brain–Computer Interfaces Introduction

    Chapter 1 Brain–Computer Interface: An Emerging Interaction Technology

    [Chang S. Nam, Inchul Choi, Amy Wadeson, and Mincheol Whang]

    Chapter 2 Facilitating the Integration of Modern Neuroscience into Noninvasive BCIs

    [Mark Wronkiewicz, Eric Larson, and Adrian K.C. Lee]

    Chapter 3 Passive Brain–Computer Interfaces: A Perspective on Increased Interactivity

    [Laurens R. Krol, Lena M. Andreessen, and Thorsten O. Zander]

    Section B Therapeutic Applications

    Chapter 4 Brain–Computer Interfaces for Motor Rehabilitation, Assessment

    of Consciousness, and Communication

    [Christoph Guger, Rossella Spataro, Jitka Annen, Rupert Ortner, Danut Irimia,

    Brendan Allison, Vincenzo La Bella, Woosang Cho, Günter Edlinger,

    and Steven Laureys]

    Chapter 5 Therapeutic Applications of BCI Technologies

    [Dennis J. McFarland]

    Chapter 6 Neuroprosthetics: Past, Present, and Future

    [Stuart Mason Dambrot]

    Chapter 7 Design and Customization of SSVEP-Based BCI Applications Aimed

    for Elderly People

    [Piotr Stawicki, Felix Gembler, and Ivan Volosyak]

    Section C Affective and Artistic Brain–Computer Interfaces

    Chapter 8 Affective Brain–Computer Interfacing and Methods for Affective State


    [Ian Daly]

    Chapter 9 Toward Practical BCI Solutions for Entertainment and Art Performance

    [Paruthi Pradhapan, Ulf Großekathöfer, Giuseppina Schiavone,

    Bernard Grundlehner, and Vojkan Mihajlović]

    Chapter 10 BCI for Music Making: Then, Now, and Next

    [Duncan A.H. Williams and Eduardo R. Miranda]

    Section D BCI Control of Entertainment and Multimedia

    Chapter 11 BCI and Games: Playful, Experience-Oriented Learning by Vivid Feedback?

    [Silvia E. Kober, Manuel Ninaus, Elisabeth V.C. Friedrich, and Reinhold Scherer]

    Chapter 12 Brain–Computer Interfaces for Mediating Interaction in Virtual

    and Augmented Reality

    [Josef Faller, Neil Weiss, Nicholas Waytowich, and Paul Sajda]

    Chapter 13 Brain–Computer Interfaces and Haptics: A Literature Review

    [Jan B.F. van Erp]

    Part II Signal Acquisition and Open Source Platform in BCI

    Chapter 14 Utilizing Subdermal Electrodes as a Noninvasive Alternative

    for Motor-Based BCIs

    [Melissa M. Smith, Jared D. Olson, Felix Darvas, and Rajesh P.N. Rao]

    Chapter 15 Validation of Neurotrophic Electrode Long-Term Recordings in Human Cortex

    [Philip R. Kennedy, Dinal S. Andreasen, Jess Bartels, Princewill Ehirim,

    Edward Joe Wright, Steven Seibert, and Andre Joel Cervantes]

    Chapter 16 ECoG-Based BCIs

    [Aysegul Gunduz and Gerwin Schalk]

    Chapter 17 BCI Software

    [Peter Brunner and Gerwin Schalk]

    Part III Signal Processing, Feature Extraction,

    and Classification in BCI

    Chapter 18 Gentle Introduction to Signal Processing and Classification for Single-Trial

    EEG Analysis

    [Benjamin Blankertz]

    Chapter 19 Riemannian Classification for SSVEP-Based BCI: Offline versus Online


    [Sylvain Chevallier, Emmanuel K. Kalunga, Quentin Barthélemy,

    and Florian Yger]

    Chapter 20 The Fundamentals of Signal Processing for Evoked Potential BCIs:

    A Guided Tutorial

    [Garett D. Johnson and Dean J. Krusienski]

    Chapter 21 Bayesian Learning for EEG Analysis

    [Yu Zhang]

    Chapter 22 Transfer Learning for BCIs

    [Vinay Jayaram, Karl-Heinz Fiebig, Jan Peters, and Moritz Grosse-Wentrup]

    Part IV Brain–Computer Interface Paradigms

    Chapter 23 A Step-by-Step Tutorial for a Motor Imagery–Based BCI

    [Hohyun Cho, Minkyu Ahn, Moonyoung Kwon, and Sung Chan Jun]

    Chapter 24 Eye Gaze Collaboration with Brain–Computer Interfaces: Using Both

    Modalities for More Robust Interaction

    [Gaye Lightbody, Chris P. Brennan, Paul J. McCullagh, and Leo Galway]

    Chapter 25 Designing a BCI Stimulus Presentation Paradigm Using a Performance-Based


    [Boyla O. Mainsah, Leslie M. Collins, and Chandra S. Throckmorton]

    Chapter 26 Issues and Challenges in Designing P300 and SSVEP Paradigms

    [Ali Haider and Reza Fazel-Rezai]

    Chapter 27 Hybrid Brain–Computer Interfaces and Their Applications

    [Jiahui Pan and Yuanqing Li]

    Chapter 28 Augmenting Attention with Brain–Computer Interfaces

    [Mehdi Ordikhani-Seyedlar and Mikhail A. Lebedev]

    Part V Human Factors, Design, and Evaluation in BCI

    Chapter 29 Toward Usability Evaluation for Brain–Computer Interfaces

    [Ilsun Rhiu, Yushin Lee, Inchul Choi, Myung Hwan Yun, and Chang S. Nam]

    Chapter 30 Why User-Centered Design Is Relevant for Brain–Computer Interfacing

    and How It Can Be Implemented in Study Protocols

    [Sonja C. Kleih and Andrea Kübler]

    Chapter 31 A Generic Framework for Adaptive EEG-Based BCI Training and Operation

    [Jelena Mladenović, Jeremie Mattout, and Fabien Lotte]

    Chapter 32 Mind the Traps! Design Guidelines for Rigorous BCI Experiments

    [Camille Jeunet, Stefan Debener, Fabien Lotte, Jeremie Mattout,

    Reinhold Scherer, and Catharina Zich]

    Chapter 33 Evaluation and Performance Assessment of the Brain–Computer

    Interface System

    [Md Rakibul Mowla, Jane E. Huggins, and David E. Thompson]

    Part VI Emerging Issues and Future BCIs

    Chapter 34 Privacy and Ethics in Brain–Computer Interface Research

    [Eran Klein and Alan Rubel]

    Chapter 35 Associative Plasticity Induced by a Brain–Computer Interface Based

    on Movement-Related Cortical Potentials

    [Natalie Mrachacz-Kersting, Ning Jiang, Kim Dremstrup, and Dario Farina]

    Chapter 36 Past and Future of Multi-Mind Brain–Computer Interfaces

    [Davide Valeriani and Ana Matran-Fernandez]

    Chapter 37 Bidirectional Neural Interfaces

    [Mikhail A. Lebedev and Alexei Ossadtchi]

    Chapter 38 Perspectives on Brain–Computer Interfaces

    [Gerwin Schalk]

    Conclusion: Moving Forward in Brain–Computer Interfaces

    [Chang S. Nam, Fabien Lotte, and Anton Nijholt]


    Chang S. Nam is an associate professor of Edward P. Fitts Industrial and Systems Engineering at North Carolina State University, USA. He is also an associated professor of the UNC/NCSU Joint Department of Biomedical Engineering as well as Department of Psychology. He received a PhD from the Grado Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering at Virginia Tech in 2003. Dr. Nam is the author or coauthor of over 70 research publications including journal articles, books, book chapters, and conference proceedings. Dr. Nam’s research interests center around brain–computer interface and rehabilitation, wearable sensor-based remote healthcare, neuroergonomics, neuroadaptive automation in large-scale unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), and haptic-user interaction. His research has been supported by federal agencies including National Science Foundation (NSF), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) and National Security Agency (NSA). Dr. Nam has received the NSF CAREER Award, Outstanding Researcher Award, and Best Teacher Award. Currently, Dr. Nam serves as the Editor-in-Chief of the journal Brain-Computer Interfaces.

    Anton Nijholt is Professor Emeritus of the University of Twente, the Netherlands and research-fellow at the Imagineering Institute in Iskandar, Malaysia. He studied mathematics at Delft University of Technology and received a PhD in computer science from the Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam. He held positions at McMaster University, Canada, University of Twente, Nijmegen University and Vrije Universiteit Brussels, before becoming full professor at the University of Twente, where he established the Human Media Interaction (HMI) research group. He supervised more than fifty PhD students in natural language processing, human-computer interaction, multi-party interaction, and brain–computer interfacing. His research has been supported by regional, national and EU research agencies. Nijholt is author of hundreds of research papers and he is editor of books on brain–computer interfaces, entertainment computing, playful interfaces and playable cities. Nijholt was research-fellow at the Netherlands Institute for Advanced Study in the Humanities and Social Sciences (NIAS) and for several years he acted as an adviser for Philips Research. Nijholt also acted as general or program chair of all main international conferences on entertainment computing, virtual agents, affective computing and multimodal interaction. Currently he is editor of the Springer book series on Gaming Media and Social Effects, specialty chief Human-Media Interaction of the journal Frontiers in Psychology and member of editorial boards of various other journals.

    Fabien Lotte is a Research Scientist (with tenure) at Inria Bordeaux Sud-Ouest, France, since 2011. He obtained a M.Sc., a M.Eng. and a PhD degree in computer sciences, all from the National Institute of Applied Sciences (INSA) Rennes, France, in 2005 (M.Sc., M.Eng.) and 2008 (PhD). In 2009 and 2010, he was a research fellow at the Institute for Infocomm Research (I2R) in Singapore, working in the Brain–Computer Interface Laboratory. His research interests include Brain–Computer Interfaces (BCI), human-computer interaction, pattern recognition and brain signal processing. He is the author or co-author of about 100 publications, several of which published in the best journals (e.g., Journal of Neural Engineering, IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, Proceedings of the IEEE, IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, etc.) and conferences (ICASSP, UIST, CHI, etc.) in these fields. His PhD Thesis received both the PhD Thesis award 2009 from AFRIF (French Association for Pattern Recognition) and the PhD Thesis award 2009 accessit (2nd prize) from ASTI (French Association for Information Sciences and Technologies). His research is supported among others by Inria, the French National Research Agency (ANR) and the European Research Council (ERC). He is part of the editorial boards of the journals Brain–Computer Interfaces and Journal of Neural Engineering.