1st Edition

Brick and Block Masonry - From Historical to Sustainable Masonry
Proceedings of the 17th International Brick/Block Masonry Conference (17thIB2MaC 2020), July 5-8, 2020, Kraków, Poland

ISBN 9781003098508
Published July 6, 2020 by CRC Press
1076 Pages

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Book Description

Brick and Block Masonry - From Historical to Sustainable Masonry contains the keynote and semi-keynote lectures and all accepted regular papers presented online during the 17th International Brick and Block Masonry Conference IB2MaC (Kraków, Poland, July 5-8, 2020). Masonry is one of the oldest structures, with more than 6,000 years of history. However, it is still one of the most popular and traditional building materials, showing new and more attractive features and uses. Modern masonry, based on new and modified traditional materials and solutions, offers a higher quality of life, energy savings and more sustainable development. Hence, masonry became a more environmentally friendly building structure. Brick and Block Masonry - From Historical to Sustainable Masonry focuses on historical, current and new ideas related to masonry development, and will provide a very good platform for sharing knowledge and experiences, and for learning about new materials and technologies related to masonry structures. The book will be a valuable compendium of knowledge for researchers, representatives of industry and building management, for curators and conservators of monuments, and for students.

Table of Contents


Organizing committee


Design of masonry structures (General rules): Highlights of the new European masonry code, P.B. Lourenco & R. Marques

Persian adobe heritage: Construction technology, characterisation and protection, M. Hejazi & S. Hejazi

Masonry facades in Australia and challenges for engineering researchand design, M.J. Masia

Recent advances of Italian recommendations and standards on structural safety of existing masonry structures, C. Modena


Validation of design tools for the prediction of mechanical behaviour of masonry arches strengthened with inorganic matrix-based composite systems, M.R. Valluzzi, L. Sbrogio & E. Cescatti

Unconventional measurement techniques in experiments on masonry, S.D. Santis

Bond behaviour in lime-based textile reinforced mortars, B. Ghiassi, A. Dalalbashi & D.V. Oliveira

A new method for out-of-plane reinforcement of masonry walls using high strength steel strand, M. Corradi, E. Speranzini, A. Borri, G. Bisciotti & S. Agnetti

Performance of TRM-to-masonry joints after exposure to elevated temperatures, C.G. Papanicolaou

Brick walls interventions with FRPU or PUFJ and of RC columns with FR in brick-infilled RC structures with the use of pushover beam-column element analysis and pseudo-dynamic 3d finite element analysis, T. Rousakis

Mining activity in Poland: Challenges, T. Tatara

Analysis of masonry structures

Determining the compressive strength of existing brickwork, B. Gigla

Seismic fragility and risk of Italian residential masonry heritage, M. Dona, L. Xu, P. Carpanese, V. Follador, F. da Porto & L. Sbrogio

Stochastic finite element model error for unreinforced masonry walls subjected to one way vertical bending under out-of-plane loading, A.C. Isfeld, M.G. Stewart & M.J. Masia

Formulation and experimental validation of distributed plasticity macro-element for unreinforced masonry walls, F. Parisi & E. Acconcia

Characterization of factors determining the durability of brick masonry, T. Stryszewska & S. Kańka

Peridynamic modelling of masonry structures, N. Sau, A. Borbon-Almada, A. Lopez-Higuera & J. Medina-Mendoza

The influence of effective flexural stiffness on slender masonry wall capacity, M. Bogoslavov & N.G. Shrive

Monte Carlo simulation of masonry walls in compression considering spatially variable material properties, L. Bujotzek, D. Muller & C.-A. Graubner

Second-order effects in URM walls subjected to combined vertical and lateral loading, M. Dona, P. Morandi, C.F. Manzini, M. Minotto, F. da Porto & G. Magenes

Case studies

An interactive tool for historic masonry buildings stability studies, P. Nougayrede, T. Ciblac & F. Guena

Best practices for matching replacement brick to historic fired-clay brick, J.C. Dick

Assessment of the stability conditions of the tower of Seddulbahir fortress in Turkey, H. Sesigur & M. Alaboz

Structural analysis of a masonry church with variable cross-section dome, A. Cascardi, F. Micelli, M.A. Aiello & M. Funari

Codes & standards

Numerical modelling of two-way out-of-plane bending tests on URM walls: The influence of lateral boundary conditions, L. Chang, J.G. Rots & R. Esposito

Building acoustics – calculation of sound insulation in buildings with single leaf clay unit masonry, K. Naumann

Critical review of normative framework for seismic assessment of existing masonry buildings, S. Krishnachandran & M. Arun

Experimental testing of unreinforced lattice masonry walls subjected to out-of-plane pressure loading, M.J. Masia, G. Simundic & A.W. Page

Design of masonry panels subjected to fire in Europe: An overview on the new draft of EN 1996-1-2, U. Meyer, R. van der Pluijm, M. Andreini, G. Pettit & L. Miccoli

Pultruded-FRP for retrofitting purposes: Mechanical characterization, O. Tamborrino, M.A. Aiello & C.R. Passerino

The revision of EN 1996-2 275, J.J. Roberts

Three story CM buildings with joint reinforcement: Shaking table tests, J.J. Perez Gavilan E. & L.E. Flores

Improvements in EN 1996-3 – Explanations and background information, C.-A. Graubner & B. Purkert

Quantifying surface deterioration: Exemplified on fired clay bricks, C.P. Simonsen & I. Rorig-Dalgaard

In-plane shear resistance of thermal insulating monolithic clay unit masonry, U. Meyer, D. Schermer, J. Schmalz, M. Gams, M. Lutman & P. Triller

Composite materials in masonry

In-plane behaviour of FRCM-strengthened masonry panels, A. Incerti, A.R. Tilocca, A. Bellini & M. Savoia

Nonlinear flexural capacity model for FRCM-strengthened masonry walls under in-plane loading, F. Parisi, G.P. Lignola & A. Prota

Study of the effectiveness of anchorages applied to SRG strips bonded to masonry blocks, G. Baietti, F. Focacci, C. Gentilini & C. Carloni

Shear behavior of masonry triplets with damp proof course and thermal insulating layer, M. Vanheukelom, B. Vandoren, D. Dragan & H. Degee

Experimental characterization of PBO-FRCM composites for masonry structures retrofit, I.E. Senaldi, G. Guerrini, A. Bruggi, A. Penna & M. Quaini

Effect of FRCM on sliding shear failure of masonry, C. D’Ambra, G.P. Lignola, A. Prota & E. Sacco

Durability of steel reinforced grout composites, S. De Santis, P. Meriggi & G. de Felice

Experimental investigation of the long-term behaviour of fabric reinforced matrix systems, A. Bonati, A. Franco, L. Schiavi & A. Occhiuzzi

Environmental durability of FRCM strengthening systems and comparison with dry fabrics, A. Bellini, A.R. Tilocca, I. Frana, M. Savoia & C. Mazzotti

Experimental study of comparative efficacy of out-of-plane strengthening of masonry walls using FRP and wire/textile reinforced mortar, P.K.V.R. Padalu, Y. Singh & S. Das

The influence of FRCM system with a basalt mesh on the shear properties of AAC masonry walls, M. Kałuża

Construction, practice, technology & earthen masonry

Mortar-auxetic rendered drystack masonry walls under concentric and eccentric compression, T. Zahra, M. Asad, R. Dhanasekar & J.A. Thamboo

Load-bearing capacity of slender earth masonry walls under compression, M. Brinkmann & C.-A. Graubner

In-plane shear strength characteristics of masonry walls with varying mortar types and aspect ratios, T. Aoki, K.C. Shrestha, U. Nonaka & H. Aoki

Shear bond strength of manufactured thin stones considering various adhesion methods, S. Rizaee, M.D. Hagel & N.G. Shrive

Intelligence prediction system of semi-interlocking masonry panels behavior, O. Zarrin & M. Ramezanshirazi

Earthen mortar in the walled city of Ahmedabad (India). Analysis of construction techniques and damages of two portion of masonry, A.G. Landi, A. Tognon & K. Shah

Shear-compression experimentation of full-scale wood-cement shuttering block walls, M. Minotto, N. Verlato, M. Dona & F. da Porto

Earthquake resistance & retrofitting

Quantification of damage to masonry structures under seismic conditions, E. Vintzileou, I. Tselios & D. Karagiannaki

Virtual work method for evaluation of out-of-plane load/displacement capacity of topological semi-interlocking masonry infill panel, Y.Z. Totoev, O. Zarrin & M.J. Masia

Fully automatic evaluation of local mechanisms in masonry aggregates through a NURBS-based limit analysis procedure, N. Grillanda, M. Valente, G. Milani, A. Chiozzi & A. Tralli

Characterization of mortar and stone masonry quality in Amatrice historical buildings hit by the 2016 central Italy earthquake, E. Cescatti, M. Secco, F. da Porto, G. Artioli, C. Modena & L. Xu

An experimental study on slender reinforced masonry shear walls subjected to in-plane reversed cyclic loading, B.R. Robazza, S. Brzev & T.Y. Yang

Mechanical modelling of cavity wall metalbties, O. Arslan, F. Messali, J.G. Rots, E. Smyrou & I.E. Bal

Flexible joints between RC frames and masonry infill for improved seismic performance – shake table tests, T. Rousakis, E. Papadouli, A. Sapalidis, V. Vanian, A. Ilki, O.F. Halici, A. Kwiecień, B. Zając, Ł. Hojdys, P. Krajewski, M. Tekieli, T. Akyildiz, A. Viskovic, F. Rizzo, M. Gams, P. Triller, B. Ghiassi, A. Benedetti, C. Colla, Z. Rakicevic, A. Bogdanovic, F. Manojlovski & A. Soklarovski

An innovative timber system for the seismic retrofit of unreinforced brick masonry buildings, N. Damiani, M. Miglietta, G. Guerrini & F. Graziotti

Seismic performance assessment of existing stone masonry school building in Croatia using nonlinear static procedure, M. Uroš, J. Atalić, M. Šavor Novak & K. Kuk

A simple deformation-based damage index for shake table testing of historic masonry prototypes, I. Roselli, V. Fioriti & A. Colucci

Seismic behaviour of RC frames with uncoupled masonry infills having two storeys or two bays,M. Marinković & C. Butenweg

Older clay masonry can be more earthquake-resistant than calcium-silicate masonry for light damage,P.A. Korswagen & J.G. Rots

Change in stiffness of damaged RC frame with masonry infills connected with stiff and flexible interfaces, A.T. Akyildiz, A. Kowalska-Koczwara, Ł. Hojdys & P. Krajewski

Energy, moisture & thermal performance

State of art: Evaluating thermal resistance of masonry walls, M. Ismaiel & Y. Chen

Humidity consequences for the application of the contemporary repairs into historic walls, M. Wesołowska

The effect of high temperatures on the mechanical performance of concrete blocks made with gneiss aggregates, W.A. Medeiros, G.A. Parsekian & A.L. Moreno Jr

Thermal inertia improvement and acoustic impact of walls with projecting facing bricks, D. Palenzuela, S. Ciukaj & N. Coin

Critical overview of problems with existing buildings made in the “big block” technology with insulation from AAC blocks. Monitoring and repair possibilities, L. Bednarz & D. Bajno

Existing masonry - monitoring, inspection, repair & strengthening

Impact of type of mortar on shear bond strength of brick masonry, M. Ramesh, C. Briceno, M. Azenha & P.B. Lourenco

Assessment of brick masonry strength using tests on core samples cut from the structures, P. Matysek & S. Seręga

In-plane capacity of beam and block floor systems: An in-field experimental study, E. Casprini, C. Passoni, A. Marini, A. Belleri & E. Giuriani

Investigation of the structural response through simple numerical models derived automatically from LiDAR scanning: The case of masonry vaults in historical buildings, G. Angjeliu & G. Cardani

Making decision on repointing of clay brick facades on the basis of moisture content and water absorption tests results – a review of assessment methods, S.K. Shahreza, M. Molnar, J. Niklewski, I. Bjornsson & T. Gustavsson

Modelling of historic brickwork walls strengthened with GFRP strips, R. Capozucca & E. Magagnini

Evaluation of the out-of-plane performances of masonry walls strengthened with composite reinforced mortar, N. Gattesco & I. Boem

Pull-off characterization of FRCM composites applied to stones and bricks in on-site conditions, E. Franzoni & C. Gentilini

Masonry elements reinforced with FRCM: Bond behaviour, M. Leone, F. Micelli, M.A. Aiello & A. Cascardi

History & preservation

Numerical insights on the structural assessment of typical historical masonry vaults of Cagliari, A. Cazzani, V. Pintus, E. Reccia, N. Grillanda & G. Milani

The seismic performance of heritage URM buildings: A parametric study, S. Dadras, M.J. Masia & Y.Z. Totoev

Documentation and analysis of deformations in a historic church a few years after its conservation and reinforcement, I. Wilczyńska, A. Brzozowska-Jawornicka,, B. Ćmielewski & M. Michiewicz

Benefits of casein additives in historic mortar mixes, K. Falkjar, J. Erochko, M. Santana & D. Lacroix

Material modelling

Masonry walls with multi-layer bed joints subjected to cyclic shear: Analytical modelling, N. Mojsilović, B. Stojadinović & M. Petrović

Constitutive model for the nonlinear cyclic behavior of brick masonry structures, M. Sousamli, F. Messali & J.G. Rots

The compressive behaviour of mortar under varying stress confinement, A. Drougkas, E. Verstrynge & K. Van Balen

3D micro-modelling of brick masonry under eccentric axial load using frictional and cohesive brick-mortar interaction behaviour, G. Iskander & N.G. Shrive

Efficiency and accuracy of a multiscale domain activation approach for modeling masonry failure,C. Driesen, H. Degee & B. Vandoren

On the effect of tortuosity on the spalling prediction in masonry through a multiphase numerical model, G. Castellazzi, A.M. D’Altri, S. de Miranda, L. Molari, F. Ubertini & H. Emami

Flemish bond brickwork: Macroscopic elastic properties and nonlinear behaviour, A. Taliercio & F. Midali

Materials & manufacturing

Experimental evaluation and probabilistic analysis of the masonry veneer wall tie characteristics, I.B. Muhit, M.G. Stewart & M.J. Masia

Durability of hemp cords exposed to alkaline environment of lime mortar, M. Zaydan, C. Caggegi, M. Michel & L. Curtil

Evolution in the protection of clay-based mortars, A. Karozou & M. Stefanidou

Comparative creep characteristics of lime mortars and brickwork, S. Macharia, P. Walker & U. Peter

Masonry arches & bridges

BIM representation and classification of masonry pathologies using semi-automatic procedure, R.A. Bernardello, P. Borin, F. Panarotto, A. Giordano & M.R. Valluzzi

Tests on a flat arch concrete block retaining wall, M.C. Kurukulasuriya & N.G. Shrive

Analysis framework for seismic assessment of single-span masonry arch bridges, G. Jofin & M. Arun

Structural performance and seismic response for Chinese ancient stone arch bridge – a case study of the Putang bridge, Q. Chun, H. Jin & S. Zhang

Performance of Persian open spandrel brick masonry barrel vaults under uniform and linear loads, M. Hejazi & Y. Soltani

Masonry testing

Shear response and failure mode of masonry triplets subjected to monotonic and cyclic loading, S. Barattucci, V. Sarhosis, A.W. Bruno, A.M. D’Altri, S. de Miranda, G. Castellazzi & G. Milani

Development of a flatjack for testing high strength masonry, G.D. Ogden, M.P. Schuller & D.B. Woodham

Experimental testing of tile vaults, D. Lopez Lopez, E. Bernat-Maso, L. Gil & P. Roca

In-plane flexural behavior of autoclave aerated concrete confined masonry walls, J.A. Moreno-Herrera, J.L. Varela-Rivera & L.E. Fernandez Baqueiro

Experimental testing of seismic response of brick masonry walls under different boundary conditions, P. Triller, M. Tomaževič & M. Gams

Experimental analysis of brick masonry veneer walls under out-of-plane loading, A. Martins, G. Vasconcelos & A. Campos-Costa

Response of brickwork wallettes of various bonding patterns under monotonic and cyclic compression, J.A. Thamboo & M. Dhanasekar

Determination of Ritter constant for hollow clay prisms under compression, G. Mohamad, H.R. Roman, T. Ottoni, A. Lubeck & F.S. Fonseca

Experimental tests of wall joints, I. Galman & R. Jasiński

Numerical modelling & analysis

A simple homogenization approach for masonry structures: A discrete approach extension from walls to curved structures, J. Scacco, G. Milani & P.B. Lourenco

Experimental and numerical studies on the shear-sliding behavior of clay brick masonries, F. Ferretti, C. Mazzotti & A. Incerti

A macro-element modelling technique to account for IP and OOP interactions in URM infilled RC or steel building, B. Pradhan, M. Zizzo, V. Sucato, L. Cavaleri, D. Penava, F. Anić & V. Sarhosis

A new macroelement-based strategy for modelling reinforced masonry piers, S. Bracchi, M. Mandirola, M. Rota & A. Penna

Seismic fragility assessment of masonry aggregates with identical structural units in row, L. Battaglia, N. Buratti & M. Savoia

Numerical study on the seismic out-of-plane performance of URM walls, H. He, S.J.H. Meijers, F.H. Middelkoop & R.A. Vonk

Macroelement model for nonlinear static pushover analysis of confined masonry walls with openings, E. Ortega-G, J.C. Jimenez-Pacheco, J.A. Quinde & H.A. Garcia

Partitions & infill

Experimental assessment of an innovative isolation technique for the seismic downgrade of existing masonry infills, V. Bolis, A. Paderno & M. Preti

Definition of out-of-plane fragility curves for masonry infills subject to combined in-plane and out-of-plane damage, F. Di Trapani, M. Malavisi, P.B. Shing & L. Cavaleri

The in-plane and out-of-plane behaviour of masonry panels with thermo-insulating attachment, G.C. Manos, L. Melidis, V. Soulis, K. Katakalos & A. Anastasiadis

The interaction between in-plane and out-of-plane seismic response of modern strong masonry infills, R.R. Milanesi, G. Magenes, P. Morandi & S. Hak

Preliminary in-plane shear test of infills protected by PUFJ interfaces, A.T. Akyildiz, A. Kwiecień, B. Zając, P. Triller, U. Bohinc, T. Rousakis & A. Viskovic

Reinforced masonry

Behaviour of stitching bars in the masonry wall, Ł. Drobiec

Strengthened clay brick and lightweight aggregate concrete block walls tested under eccentric axial loading – a feasibility study on different strengthening techniques, J. Niklewski & M. Molnar

Influence of horizontal reinforcement type on shear strength of hollow concrete block masonry shear walls, S. Calderon, C. Sandoval, E. Inzunza-Araya, G. Araya-Letelier & L. Vargas

The seismic performance of partially grouted reinforced masonry, G.C. Manos, L. Melidis, L. Kotoulas & K. Katakalos

Shear strength prediction of partially-grouted concrete masonry walls with openings, L. Vargas, C. Sandoval, P. Ramirez, G. Araya-Letelier & S. Calderon

Seismic & limit design

Local mechanism analysis in unreinforced masonry buildings according to a new procedure based on floor spectra evaluation, L. Sbrogio, M. Salvalaggio & M.R. Valluzzi

Vertical collapse mechanisms in masonry buildings due to seismic vertical component, F. Comodini & M. Mezzi

Seismic response of an unreinforced masonry building with structural irregularity; Blind prediction by means of pushover analysis, A. Aşıkoğlu, G. Vasconcelos, P.B. Lourenco & A. Del Re

Effect of mortar-brick cohesive interface on seismic response of masonry walls, B. Jafarzad Eslami, H. Darban & A. Del Grosso

Sustainability & innovation of masonry

The assessment of confined semi-interlocking masonry buildings using macro-modelling approach, M. Hemmat, Y.Z. Totoev & M.J. Masia

Review on CO2 capture, storage and sequestration in non steel reinforced precast concrete, L.R. Fortunato, G.A. Parsekian & A. Neves

Freeze-thaw durability of glass textile-reinforced mortar composites, A. Dalalbashi, B. Ghiassi & D.V. Oliveira

Author index

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1. Jan KUBICA PhD., DSc, Eng., - Full professor at the Silesian University of Technology in Gliwice (Poland). Head of Department of Structural Engineering. Main areas of interest: masonry structures, concrete structures, composite structures, design and practice, codes and standards, advanced analysis of masonry walls under complex state of stress in aspect of stiffness of whole buildings and structures situated on terrain’s characterised by irregular settlements, analytical and numerical analysis of structures, maintenance and strengthening of different type of structures, testing of construction and materials, modern cement-based and lime-based materials, not-metallic reinforcement and graphene using in building materials applications, monitoring and diagnostics of structures. Member of the International Masonry Society and The Masonry Society. Convener of the CIB W023 Commission “Wall structures”. Member of the CEN TC250 SC6 PT2 and CEN TC250 SC6 PT3 project teams. Since many years member of the Polish Standardizing Committees: KT 102 (design problems), KT 213 (concrete structure), KT 233 (masonry structures), KT 252 (design of masonry structures). Expert member of RILEM Technical Committees. Author and co-author of 4 monographic books and above 200 scientific publications. 2. Arkadiusz KWIECIEŃ Ph.D., D.Sc., Eng. - professor of CUT at the Cracow University of Technology in Structural Mechanics in Civil Engineering. Involved in research on repair and strengthening of masonry and concrete structures, structural mechanics and dynamics, composite strengthening of structures, inventor of Polymer Flexible Joints, Chief Executive Officer of spin-off company FlexAndRobust Systems Ltd. Member of the RILEM Technical Committees TC 223 MSC, TC 250-CSM, TC IMC and of ACI 549 – RILEM TC 250 Liaison Subcommittee, expert member of the ICOMOS Technical Committee ISCARSAH - International Scientific Committee on the Analysis and Restoration of Structures of Architectural Heritage, member of the Management Committees of COST Actions TU1207 and CA15202. Author and co-author of above 200 scientific publications. 3. Łukasz BEDNARZ Ph.D., Eng., - assistant professor at the Wrocław University of Science and Technology. Professional interests: masonry structures, documentation, analysis of the state of preservation, maintenance and strengthening of structures (especially heritage structures), testing of construction and composite materials, monitoring and diagnostics of structures. Author and co-author of many scientific papers and design projects on issues related to the analysis, strengthening and monitoring of masonry structures. Member of: ICOMOS Poland, ICOMOS Technical Committee - CIPA International Committee of Architectural Photogrammetry, ICOMOS Technical Committee - ISCARSAH International Scientific Committee on the Analysis and Restoration of Structures of Architectural Heritage, AICO - Associazione Italiana Compositi, SKZ - Polish Association of Monument Conservators, thematic editor (masonry structures) of the Journal of Heritage Conservation.