A System Engineer’s Guide to Building an Earth Observation Camera
Building Earth Observation Camerasdiscusses the science and technology of building an electro-optical imaging system for a space platform from concept to space qualification and in-orbit evaluation. The book provides a broad overview of various Earth imaging systems with specific examples illustrating the design and development issues that impacted the Indian Remote Sensing Satellite (IRS) cameras, and is based on the actual experience of the author, who was intimately involved with the development of cameras for the IRS program.
It equips imaging system project managers, scholars, and researchers with the ability to look deeper into the systems that they are developing, and arms application scientists who use satellite imagery with a greater understanding of the technical aspects and terminology used in defining the performance of the image system. The text traces the historical development of imaging systems, reviews the evolution of Earth observation systems from a global perspective, and examines future trends.
This interdisciplinary work:
- Presents technical issues associated with the design, fabrication, and characterization of the camera
- Provides a narrow focus and end-to-end solutions to all components involved in a successful camera-on-Earth observation system
- Covers various stages including image formation, optics, opto-mechanics, material choice, design tradeoffs, fabrication, evaluation, and finally qualifying the system for space use
Building Earth Observation Camerasprovides the tools needed to enable readers to better understand the concepts and challenges involved in building space-based Earth observation systems.
Table of Contents
The Civilian Earth Imaging System
The Indian Earth Observation Program-the evolution
The Earth Observation System – The Paradigm Shift:
Some Useful Terminologies of Imaging System
Image Quality Evaluation
Modulation Transfer Function
Source of EM Radiation for Imaging
Reflective and Catadioptic Systems
Stray Light Control and Baffling
Building Reflective Telescope
Earth Observation Camera - An Overview
On-orbit Performance Evaluation
Principle of Operation
Dispersive System and Focal Plane Layout
System Design Considerations
Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+)
Principle of Operation
Linear Array for Pushbroom Scanning
CCD Signal Generation and Processing
Space borne Pushbroom Cameras
IRS Cameras - LISS &
The IRS C/D Camera
SPOT Earth Observation Camera
Landsat -Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM)
Considerations for Realising High Resolution Imaging System
Increasing the Integration Time
Choosing Faster Optics
Constraints on the Satellite
Imaging Cameras with Sub-meter Resolution
What Limits the Spatial Resolution?
Hyperspectral Imaging Configuration
Spectrometers - An Overview
Distortions - ''Smile'' and ''Keystone'' Effects
Hyperspectral Imaging Instruments
Adding the Third Dimension - Stereo Imaging
Stereo Pair Generation Geometries
Along-Track Stereo Using Multiple Telescopes
Stereo Pairs with Single Optics
Journey from Ground to Space
Space Hardware Realisation Approach
Reliability and Quality Assurance
Appendix. Representative Imageries
Dr. George Joseph started his career in 1962 at the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR), Mumbai, where he was involved in the study of cosmic rays. For his pioneering work on the detection of the emission of neutrons from the sun, he was awarded a PhD in 1971. In 1973, he joined the Space Applications Centre (SAC), one of the major centers of the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO), primarily for developing Earth observation systems. Under his leadership, a variety of Earth observation cameras were developed for the Indian Remote Sensing Satellite (IRS) and the Indian National Satellite (INSAT).
Featured Author Profiles
"... This is a unique book containing the details of design philosophy in an integrated manner. I am not aware of any other book which covers so many aspects relating to the earth observation cameras, containing such a vast amount of knowledge and information at one place. If I were to teach a course on the subject, I would find no better book. ..."
—Kehar Singh, IIT Delhi, New Delhi, India, and ITM University, Gurgaon, Haryana, India, from the Journal of the Indian Society of Remote Sensing, 2015
"... a comprehensive and very accessible book ... packed with useful information; 350 pages covering every aspect of the design of the wide range of optical cameras used in space. The emphasis on Indian missions is helpful both in the detail provided of individual sensors and in understanding the principles discussed in the book. The sections which deal with constraints and trade-offs, particularly those related to future developments, are useful and stimulating. ... An extensive list of references will allow those interested in more detail and background to extend their knowledge. In this age of small satellites and inexpensive sensors, understanding the system which produces the data is very important: Dr Joseph has made an important contribution to the understanding of what can, and cannot, be done with earth observation sensors."
—Ian Dowman, University College London, UK
"...an extremely nice blend of fundamental concepts needed to build space borne camera systems and its engineering aspects.… the subject matter is explained so lucidly that a professional will enjoy reading it."
—Dr. Krishna Gupta, ASML Lithography Division, Wilton, Connecticut, USA
"… excellent … The author is a renowned expert in IRS imaging systems … the book is replete with his own practical experiences and is one of the best-source book for electro-optical system. … will appeal to that large community across the world."
—Mukund Rao, International Consultant in EO, GIS, and Space