Building Knowledge, Constructing Histories : Proceedings of the 6th International Congress on Construction History (6ICCH 2018), July 9-13, 2018, Brussels, Belgium book cover
1st Edition

Building Knowledge, Constructing Histories
Proceedings of the 6th International Congress on Construction History (6ICCH 2018), July 9-13, 2018, Brussels, Belgium

ISBN 9781138584143
Published January 29, 2021 by CRC Press
1434 Pages

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Book Description

Building Knowledge, Constructing Histories brings together the papers presented at the Sixth International Congress on Construction History (6ICCH, Brussels, Belgium, 9-13 July 2018). The contributions present the latest research in the field of construction history, covering themes such as:
- Building actors
- Building materials
- The process of building
- Structural theory and analysis
- Building services and techniques
- Socio-cultural aspects
- Knowledge transfer
- The discipline of Construction History

The papers cover various types of buildings and structures, from ancient times to the 21st century, from all over the world. In addition, thematic papers address specific themes and highlight new directions in construction history research, fostering transnational and interdisciplinary collaboration.

Building Knowledge, Constructing Histories is a must-have for academics, scientists, building conservators, architects, historians, engineers, designers, contractors and other professionals involved or interested in the field of construction history.

Table of Contents


Thematic sessions

Thematic session: Building maintenance in ancient times (up to the early modern period)

Building maintenance in ancient times (up to the early modern period)
P. Bernardi, C. Davoine, H. Dessales & M. L’Héritier

Maintenance of the parietal coverings in ancient Rome: Confrontation between legal norms and archaeological evidence
P. Ducret & M. Carrive

Maintaining an atrium house during the principate in Ostia
G. Mainet

Municipal management of wooden bridges in the fifteenth century: Pont de la Daurade in Toulouse and Pont Notre-Dame in Paris
C. Sabathier & N. Moucheront

Regular building maintenance and long-term conservation in ancient times
M. L’Héritier, C. Davoine, H. Dessales & P. Bernardi

Thematic session: Experts and building assessments. An international comparison (thirteenth-twentieth century)

Experts and building assessments. An international comparison (thirteenth-twentieth century)
R. Carvais & V. Negre

Siena 1357. The failure of a great plan
K. Tragbar

The public architect’s role as surveyor of the construcion site in the nineteenth century: The example of Belgian provincial architects
J. Cornilly

The engineer as expert: Early structural forensic reports in the United States
D. Friedman

Surveyors and building appraisals. Conceptualizing a comparative project (thirteenthtwentieth centuries)
R. Carvais

Thematic session: Architects and bureaucrats: Centralised governments and the administrative pre-conditions of building before 1750

Architects and bureaucrats: Centralised governments and the administrative pre-conditions of building before 1750
M. Hurx

The impact of bureaucratic procedures on architectural planning in the Late Middle Ages in the Low Countries
M. Hurx

Building for the Crown: Contracts and administration under the Spanish monarchy in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, the Monastery of El Escorial
P. Chías & T. Abad

Bureaucratization and dynamization of construction processes in the electorate of Bavaria
A. Gommel

The director, the first architect of the academy and the professor: The roles of these figures in the academic teaching of eighteenth-century France
H. Rousteau-Chambon

Architects and institutions in the construction of the new city of Cervia
I. Benincampi

Thematic session: Historic precast concrete

Historic precast concrete
H.A. Heinemann

Building breakwaters with precast concrete blocks (1834–67)
S.M. Holzer

Concrete matter: Building the Bruges submarine pens (1917–18)
W. Bekers & R. De Meyer

Stone and concrete: A review of the coevolution of the surface finishes of two buildings materials
H.A. Heinemann & W.J. Quist

The NEMAVO Airey system: A wealth of options
L.G.K. Spoormans, H. Zijlstra & W.J. Quist

Prefabricated elements and typification in communist Poland
P. Marciniak

‘Handmade’ pre-cast concrete: The Italian experience between structural engineering and industrial design (1950–80)
I. Giannetti

Thematic session: Early thin shells – players, impulses, and effects

Early thin shells – players, impulses, and effects
R. May

The first concrete dome in Germany? A church building using modern techniques
J. Rehm

Hangars built of concrete reinforced in various ways, 1908–21: Toward a majestic nave without ribbing
B. Lampariello

Oldest surviving hangars with shallow domes (1918)
C. Czymay

Thin concrete shells by Eugene Freyssinet
B. Espion

The diffusion of the Zeiss-Dywidag system in Italy: Two cases in Rome
M. Russo & E. Curra

A great achievement of the Soviet construction technology in Siberia: The reinforced concrete cupola of the Novosibirsk Theatre
I. Nevzgodin

Wooden shells in pre-war Soviet Union (1925–39)
O. Arkhipkina

‘Laborious and difficult’: The evolution of Pier Luigi Nervi’s hangar roofs (1935–41)
T. Leslie

Contemporary light vaults in Colombia. The origin of a modern tradition
J. García, F. Magdalena & J.M. Medina

Thematic session: Modern ‘comfort’ in colonial / postcolonial settings beyond the ‘centre / periphery’ framework

Modern ‘comfort’ in colonial / postcolonial settings beyond the ‘centre / periphery’ framework
J. Lagae & J.-H. Chang

Viet-cool: Thermal comforts in Vietnam
A. Cruse

Cross-cultural thermal knowledge: The case of large-scale tobacco barns in Sumatra (Indonesia)
S. Roesler

Detropicalizing comfort research: The climate and house design program in Australia (1945–47)
D.J. Ryan

Thematic session: Transnational exchange in the construction worlds of nineteenth and twentieth century Asia: The diffusion of materials and processes in the Global South

Transnational exchange in the construction worlds of nineteenth and twentieth century Asia: The diffusion of materials and processes in the Global South
A. Srivastava & P. Scriver

Elle pousse, la Capitale Champignon!” Questioning skill in the Belgian Congo’s building industry
R. Fivez

Construction technology transfer in Shanghai in the nineteenth to twentieth centuries
J. Ye & C. Fivet

Cement and ‘Shanghai plaster’ in British Hong Kong and Penang (1920s–1950s)
C.W.C. Lai

Learning from the ‘other’: Early modern emulation and trans-imperial exchange of ‘native’ building technologies
P. Guedes

Open sessions

Schematic reconstruction of a type of Roman scaffolding used for the Basilica of Maxentius
L. Albrecht & M. Döring-Williams

Alonso de Vandelvira’s approach to the geometrical design of templates for caissons in crossing trellis vaults
M. Aranda Alonso

Glasgow city chambers: The construction and building services history of a major municipal building from the Victorian period
N.C. Baker

Changes in the battlements and machicolations of the Late Medieval castles between the duchy of Milan and Este dominions. Just a question of style or also function?
L. Balboni

Concrete capital: John McShain’s construction of Washington, DC (1930–70)
V. Baselice

Contracting blunders and innovative regulations of US military construction 1861 to 1918
J.L. Beard

The work and professional status of John (1787–1852) and Benjamin Green (1813–58), architects and engineers
P.W.R. Bell

Gustave Andreas Royers (1848–1923), from Antwerp city engineer to Belgian politician
I. Bertels

Exploring the visual material within the building process of the Villa Savoye
V. Boone & B. Gandini

General contractors and architects in nineteenth-century America
B. Bowen

Two- and three-dimensional geometry in Tierceron vaults: A case study of Exeter cathedral
A.C. Buchanan & N.J. Webb

John A. Roebling’s Allegheny Aqueduct and Smithfield Street Bridge: Nineteenth-century innovation in multi-span suspension bridges
S.G. Buonopane & D.A. Gasparini

From invention to production: The introduction of prestressed concrete
J. Burchardt

Influences of the engineer Pier Luigi Nervi on the work of the architect Marcel Breuer
M.Á. Calvo-Salve

A dispute on Venetian techniques of foundation: Vincenzo Scamozzi in San Nicolo da Tolentino (1591–95)
M. Capponi

Wooden survey towers in Germany
P.S.C. Caston

Iron roof structures by Bosshard & Cie: Case studies in Switzerland
A.M. Chalvatzi & S.M. Holzer

Building contracts in the city of Girona from the fourteenth to the eighteenth century
M.A. Chamorro, J. Soler, R. Ripoll & E. Vilagran

Innovative or derivative? The design of the bridge structures on the world’s first intercity railway between Liverpool and Manchester
M. Chrimes

The graphic statics of the systems of space by Benjamin Mayor
T. Ciblac

The rise and fall of the cast iron breast panel in Britain (c.1906–60)
J. Clarke

TPI – the Italian popular theatre: An architectural, technological and building experiment of a space in motion
A. Como, L. Smeragliuolo Perrotta, S. Talenti & A. Teodosio

Inquiring into the structural identity of the Sala dei Baroni vault
M.T. Como

What hides behind the plaster? Hollow-brick and iron vaults in Europe between the eighteenth and the twentieth century
P. Condoleo

Reinforced concrete in Italy through the works of two generations of engineers: Mario and Giorgio Baroni
E. Curra & M. Russo

The construction of Ghent’s textile industry warehouses
M. De Fossé, I. Bertels, I. Wouters & L. Van Santvoort

Spatial management of contractors. An analysis of the industrial sites of the Louis De Waele enterprise in Brussels (1867–1988)
M. Degraeve, J. Dobbels, I. Bertels, H. Deneweth & S. Van de Voorde

Renovating early modern Leiden: New perspectives on the building trades
H. Deneweth

Building in (times of) war. Blaton’s construction activities in occupied Belgium
R. Devos & B. Espion

Steel heritage: Olivetti’s factories in Ivrea in the fifties and sixties
D. Di Donato, R. Morganti, A. Tosone & M. Abita

History of the Italian contractors of large reinforced concrete structures in the twentieth century
C. Di Pietro

A business-historical analysis of Entreprises générales Henri Ruttiens (1878–2000)
J. Dobbels, I. Bertels, I. Wouters & B. Espion

Sasanian construction technology in the Maiden Tower Complex as evidence of Late Antiquity building activities in Baku (Azerbaijan)
M. Döring-Williams & L. Albrecht

Doors in English published books on architecture and building construction 1550–1800
K.L. Draper & J.W.P. Campbell

Porto tower buildings in the 1960s: Challenges to architects and engineers
R. Fernandes Póvoas & C. Pimenta do Vale

Constructive culture in the transition from the nineteenth to the twentieth century. Contributions of Alfredo de Andrade (1839–1915) to construction history across Italy and Portugal
T.C. Ferreira

The institutional organisation of Belgium’s cellular prison building campaign (1830-WWI)
J. Feyaerts

The caisson – review of a unique wooden construction typology in China
C. Fivet, J. Ye & P. Xu

Richard Neutra and the history of the vertical louvered solar control system
C. Fordham

From pickaxes to steam saws: The construction of the row house in Dublin (1730–1888)
S. Galavan

From master builder to subcontractor: The Guastavino Company and the role of specifications
J. Garcia Fritz

Sturdy as stone, vibrant as ceramics: Italklinker and Modern Movement architecture in Italy
E. Garda & M. Mangosio

Navier’s 1823 Mémoire: Analyses and observations on displacements and stiffness of suspension bridges
D.A. Gasparini & S.G. Buonopane

Geometry on paper and on the ground in the last third of the seventeenth century. Leclerc’s and Manesson-Mallet’s contribution and influence
J. Girón

Historic timber framed courtyard houses: Origin and development of the corralas in Madrid (1494–1908)
E. González-Redondo

Innovation of construction systems versus reproducibility of the architectural image. Multiple constructional processes in the ‘Unité d’Habitation’ (1945–67)
F. Graf



Pier Luigi Nervi and Fiat. The expansion of Officine Mirafiori in Turin
L. Greco

The vaulted roof of San Vittore in Milan: An unusual sixteenth-century construction
A. Grimoldi

The evolution of the cast node of the Pompidou Centre: From the ‘friction collar’ to the ‘gerberette’
B. Hamzeian

German stonemasons and the fort architecture of the Texas frontier
L. Hancock

The Chinese teahouse at the 1873 Vienna world exposition
A. Harrer

Documenting depression-era construction: The University of Virginia’s PWA buildings
B.J. Hays

King’s College Chapel: The geometry of the fan vault
J. Heyman

Late Antique vaults in the cisterns of Resafa with ‘bricks set in squares’
C. Hof

Evolutionary traces in European nail-making tools
C. How

Arch bridge design in eighteenth-century France: The rule of Perronet
S. Huerta

‘Recommended minimum requirements for small dwelling construction’. A forgotten ancestor of the modern USA building code
N.P. Isaacs

Earthen buildings in Ireland
A. Jiménez Rios & D.W. O’Dwyer

Iron on top. The use of wrought iron armatures in the construction of late Gothic openwork spires
C. Kayser

The Munich state opera house. Constructing between tradition and progress at the beginning of the nineteenth century
C. Knobling

The roof of the Marble Palace in Saint-Petersburg: A structural iron ensemble from the 1770s
A. Kosykh, W. Lorenz & K. Frommelt

Modernity and locality in the use of brick in Spanish architecture (1870s–1930s)
R. Kumagai, Y. Ito & F. Kimura

Study of traditional gypsum in Spain: Methodology and initial results
V. La Spina

Interdisciplinary research on the heritage of housing complexes in France (1945–75)
R. Labrunye, G. Bolle, K. El Alami, I. Requena & D. Siret

Earthen mortar walls in Cremona: The complexity and logic behind a construction technique
A.G. Landi

Geometry and proportions of the medieval castles of Latvia
A. Lapins

New typology for Old & Middle Kingdom stone tools: Studies in the Hatnub quarries in Egypt
O. Lavigne

Luigi Moretti and the program of the case albergo in Milan (1947–50)
R. Lucente & L. Greco

Hydrotechnical models of the ‘Modellkammer’ (chamber of models) in Augsburg, Germany
R. Mair & C. Weber

Abandonment of sexpartite vaults: Construction difficulties and evolution
R. Maira Vidal

Late Gothic constructions in Müstair and Meran
M. Maissen, M. Gantner & S.M. Holzer

Built-in, exposed or concealed comfort services. Attempts to industrialise collective housing after 1945
G. Marino

The Portland cement industry and reinforced concrete in Portugal (1860–1945)
J. Mascarenhas-Mateus & C. Rodrigues de Castro

Origins of the modern cable-stayed bridge: The Dischinger story
R. May

Frederick Lanchester and the invention of the air-supported roof
W. McLean

Catetinho: The first presidential house in Brasília, Brazil
M.M. Mennucci & P.P. Palazzo

Some aspects of steel building construction of the industrial architecture in the United States (1890–1930)
M. Mislin

Iron bridges for Rome, the capital of the Kingdom of Italy
R. Morganti, A. Tosone, M. Abita & D. Di Donato

The hyperbolic paraboloids of the Tor di Valle racetrack in Rome
S. Mornati

The secret of zoomorphic imposts: A new reading of the Achaemenids’ roofing system
M. Motamedmanesh

The dome of Saint-Paul-Saint-Louis in Paris, a historical and structural analysis
L. Moubax & K. De Jonge

Braided rope with vegetable fibers for the construction of the Inca bridge of Q’eswachaka (Peru)
E. Muscio & J. Anaya Díaz

Church of Mission San José, San Antonio: Using construction history to inform preservation approaches
A. Nau & Q. Collette

Knowledge transfer in vaulting. The Assier church and Valencian stonecutting
P. Navarro-Camallonga, J. Calvo-López & M.A. Alonso-Rodríguez

Nineteenth-century stone protection: The invention and early research on fluosilicates and their dispersion into Europe
T.G. Nijland & W.J. Quist

The Boyne Viaduct: Early indeterminate lattice girder analysis and design
D.W. O’Dwyer & R. Cox

Sixteenth-century development from common rafter roofs to ridge purlins in Leiden (NL)
E. Orsel

European iron bridges in Puerto Rico: The example of the Guamaní bridge
J. Ortiz-Colom

Accouplement: Vicissitudes of an architectural motif in classical France
P.P. Palazzo

Fabrication and erection of large steel bridges in the twentieth century: From structural analysis to optimisation of fabrication
E. Pelke & K.-E. Kurrer

Production of major public works in Brazil: From the scenes in documentaries from 1950–70 to an interrogation about the contemporary specificities of state-company relations
G.M. Petrella & C.H. D’Almeida

Early Greek stone construction and the invention of the crane
A. Pierattini

Experimental school constructions by Jean Prouvé. The benefit of closed prefabrication
A.L. Pöllinger

Sheltered. Parked. Respirated. Three underground spaces by Gottfried Schindler
A.W. Putz

Dutch natural stone: Interpretation of a vernacular building material in modern architecture
W.J. Quist

Late Gothic system in the church of Saint-Séverin (Paris)
E. Rabasa-Díaz

Recent geopolitics of construction – origins and consequences
A. Rabeneck

Pier Luigi Nervi’s idea of “vertita delle strutture
P. Radelet-de Grave

‘Theory’ and systematic testings – Emil Mörsch, Carl bach and the culture of experimentation into reinforced concrete construction at the turn of the twentieth century
C. Rauhut & T. Meyer

A timber bridge constructed in seventeenth-century Japan: Study of innovation in the construction of Kintai Bridge and its maintenance techniques
C. Ren

François Coignet (1814–88) and the industrial development of the first modern concretes in France
G. Richaud

Assessing geometrically the structural safety of masonry arches
J.-F. Rondeaux, A. Deschuyteneer & D. Zastavni

A masterpiece in the use of light, Johnson Wax headquarters. Racine, Wisconsin, USA
G. Sampaoli

The Church of Peace in Jawor: A few remarks on the organization of its construction in the years 1654–56 in the light of written and iconographic sources
U. Schaaf

Nubia vernacular: The villages of Bigge
B. Schäfer

Beyond Grubenmann: Swiss carpentry (1750–1850)
J. Schäfer & S.M. Holzer

Transfer of knowledge through books and prints: Jesuit design for the Western buildings and fountains in the Yuanmingyuan in Beijing
H. Schlimme

Earthquake-resistant foundations systems in Italy in the first decade of the twentieth century
F. Scibilia

Specifications and the standardisation of Ireland’s local harbours
E. Shotton

Fire brick in China: From mining to architecture
C.-X. Shu & Y.-B. Fang

New experiences with reinforced tile for Eladio Dieste when building the Cristo Obrero Church
M. Silva-Contreras

Competing visions of community, commerce and construction in the first Ohio River railroad bridge
D.A. Simmons

Knowledge transfer in the early medieval art of vaulting in Dalmatia
M. Šimunić Buršić

Onsite precast concrete: A critical approach to concrete at the Faculty of Engineering, Prince of Songkha University, Thailand
P. Sirikiatikul

Adobe constructions in Yún-lín county, Taiwan
P. Smars

The vaulted system of the Basilica of S. Ambrogio in Milan: A cross-feature in the Basilica’s life. Restoration and interpretation
C. Stanga & C. Spinelli

At the intersection of foreign building know-how: Plovdiv in the early twentieth century
I. Stoyanova

The influence of Howe’s structural typology on Galician wooden bridges
C. Tardini

The mushroom column: Origins, concepts and differences
A. Thuy & M. Rinke

The thirties summer holiday camps in the Abruzzo region: From design to building
A. Tosone, R. Morganti & A. Bellicoso

The first Luanda’s skyscraper: Comfort through natural and artificial control methods
A. Tostoes & M. Quinta

Victor Horta and building site photography
D. Van de Vijver

Business-card buildings: Corporate architecture and promotional strategies in buildings and projects for Eternit in Belgium (1955–75)
S. Van de Voorde & R. Devos

The foundations of the Nieuwe Kerk Tower in Amsterdam (1645–52)
G. van Tussenbroek

Joining techniques in nineteenth- and early twentieth-century Belgian timber roofs
L. Vandenabeele, I. Bertels & I. Wouters

Education on the production chain: Lelé’s transitory schools in Brazil
A. Vilela

Innovations in the structural systems in tall buildings in Bogotá in the 1960s. Case study: Bavaria building
C. Villate Matiz

William Arrol and Peter Lind: Demolition, construction and workmanship on London’s Waterloo Bridges (1934–46)
C. Wall

Reverse engineering marvelous machines: The design of Late Gothic vaults from concept to stone planning and the prehistory of stereotomy
D. Wendland & M.J. Ventas Sierra

Emergence of heavy contracting in the United States in the nineteenth century
S.E. Wermiel

Hidden modernity: Reinforced concrete trusses in Brussels parish churches (1935–40)
R. Wibaut, T. Coomans & I. Wouters

Built to stock. Versatility of Hennebique’s urban warehouses in Belgium (1892–1914)
I. Wouters, S. Van de Voorde, M. De Fossé & I. Bertels

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Ine Wouters (°1972) holds a MSc degree in Architectural Engineering (Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB) 1996) and a PhD in Engineering (VUB 2002). After a short stay at PHL, she built up her research career in the Faculty of Engineering at VUB. She is head of the Department of Architectural Engineering since 2011. Her research focuses on historic building materials, innovative construction techniques and the various actors involved to better understand, value and interact with the nineteenth and twentieth century architectural and industrial heritage. She is co-founder of the research centre Construction HistorieS Brussels (CHsB) and a member of the English Construction History Society (CHS), the International Committee for the Conservation of the Industrial Heritage (TICCIH), the International Council on Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS Vlaanderen-Brussel), the Gesellschaft für Bautechnikgeschichte and the Flemish Association for Industrial Archaeology (VVIA). In 2011-13 she co-organised the first three European Summer Schools on Construction History in Cambridge, Brussels and Munich.

Stephanie Van de Voorde (°1981) is specialized in 20th-century architectural and construction history in Belgium, focusing on building materials and building actors. After her MSc degree in architectural engineering (Ghent University 2005), she wrote a PhD on Building in Concrete in Belgium (1890-1975). Interplay of Knowledge, Experiment and Innovation (Ghent University, 2011). Since then, Stephanie conducted several research projects, for instance on the history of architectural education in Belgium and post-war construction materials and building techniques ( From 2013 onwards, Stephanie works at the Department of Architectural Engineering of the Vrije Universiteit Brussel as a professor and post-doctoral researcher. Stephanie is an Expert Member of ICOMOS International Scientific Committee 20th Century (ISC20C) and member of the research team Construction HistorieS Brussels (CHsB), the editorial board of the bimonthly journal M&L. Monumenten, Landschappen en Archeologie, of the Construction History Society, Docomomo, and the Association Francophone de l'Histoire de la Construction.

Inge Bertels (°1976) is a historian (KU Leuven, 1998) and master in Conservation (R. Lemaire Centre for Conservation KU Leuven, 2000). Simultaneous with her studies in conservation she worked as an architectural historian at the Antwerp Architect’s offices R. Steenmeijer & H. Baksteen (1999-2000). From October 2000 to October 2006 she was related to the R. Lemaire Centre and the research group Architectural History of the Department of Architecture, Urbanism and Planning of the KU Leuven. Later on she worked as a postdoctoral fellow of the Fonds Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek at the Centre of Urban History at the Department of History of the Universiteit Antwerpen. In 2008 she gradually started teaching architectural history and theory at the Vrije Universiteit Brussel and today combines a professorship at the Vrije Universiteit Brussel and Universiteit Antwerpen.

Bernard Espion (°1956) is Professor of Structural Engineering at the Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB) where he is also the Director of the Civil Engineering Laboratory. He is a founding member of "Construction HistorieS Brussels" ULB-VUB joint research group. His main research interests in Construction History lie in structures (reinforced and prestressed concrete, composite steel-concrete, cable roofs, thin concrete shells, bridges, ...), materials and construction processes (cement and concretes, iron and steel, connections, …), historical evolution of structural theories and design concepts, especially by Belgian engineers, contractors and companies, 19-20th Centuries. He contributes to the promotion of Belgian civil and building engineering heritage by publications, lectures and contributions to exhibitions. He has been member from 2013 to 2017 of the editorial board of the international journal "Engineering History and Heritage" and of the working group "Construction History" of the International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering.

Krista De Jonge (°1959) is specialized in late mediaeval and early modern architectural history in the Low Countries. She trained in architectural engineering at KU Leuven and in early modern history and history of architecture at the Centre d’Études supérieures de la Renaissance in Tours, France. Since 2001 she is full professor of history of architecture at KU Leuven and currently chairs its research Department of Architecture. She is also an elected member of the Academia Europaea, the Royal Flemish Academy for Science and the Arts, the Royal Academy of Archaeology of Belgium, and the National Committee for the History of Science and Logic of Belgium; moreover, she is or was an advisor to the Academia Belgica in Rome, to FWO Vlaanderen and to the Fondation de la Recherche Scientifique, Belgium, to the Royal Institute of Heritage, Brussels, and to the Centre d’Études supérieures de la Renaissance in Tours, France. She was a fellow of the Centre André Chastel, INHA, Paris, and a member of the Royal Commission of Monuments and Sites in the Brussels Capital Region. Her research interests within the field of construction history include gothic vaulting techniques, dome construction, masonry and foundations, as well as the organisation of the building site and the development of the building professions in the early modern period.

Denis Zastavni (°1973) is Dr. Arch. Eng. and Professor at the Faculty of Architecture, Architectural Engineering and Urbanism [LOCI] of the Université catholique de Louvain at Louvain-la-Neuve in Belgium. He has worked as a structural engineer and architect for over ten years. His PhD was on Robert Maillart’s design methods and he won the Premio Edoardo Benvenuto in 1998. His main publications are on structural design, pedagogical approaches in teaching structure and technology, and Robert Maillart’s designs. His current research is focused on structural design approaches and tools, analysis of historical structures, history of the design of structures and construction, graphic statics, timber constructions and on deepening his knowledge of Robert Maillart’s structural methods.