Bulgaria under Communism: 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Bulgaria under Communism

1st Edition

By Ivaylo Znepolski, Mihail Gruev, Momtchil Metodiev, Martin Ivanov, Daniel Vatchkov, Ivan Elenkov, Plamen Doynov

Routledge

462 pages

Purchasing Options:$ = USD
Hardback: 9780815372790
pub: 2018-09-19
$144.95
x
eBook (VitalSource) : 9781351244916
pub: 2018-10-11
from $27.48


FREE Standard Shipping!

Description

The book traces the history of communist Bulgaria from 1944 to 1989. A detailed narrative-cum-study of the history of a political system, it provides a chronological overview of the building of the socialist state from the ground up, its entrenchment into the peaceful routine of everyday life, its inner crises, and its gradual decline and self-destruction. The book is the definitive and the most complete guide to Bulgaria under communism and how the communist system operates on a day-to-day level.

Table of Contents

Contents

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

INTRODUCTION: HOW SHOULD WE WRITE THE HISTORY OF COMMUNIST BULGARIA?

  1. The Problem of Distance: From Close Up and Far Away
  2. Why the Silence about Communism?
  3. Macrohistory or History from the “Bottom Up”
  4. The Trajectory of the Regime: Three Provisionally Differentiated Periods
  5. The Regime and Society in an Interdisciplinary Perspective
  6. The People’s Republic of Bulgaria and the Republic of Bulgaria – Continuity or a Break?

HISTORICAL BACKGROUND: THE COMMUNIST PARTY’S PATH TO POWER

    1. The Building of the Modern Bulgarian State
    2. The Upturn of the End of the 19th and the Beginning of the 20th Centuries
    3. Bulgaria’s Participation in Wars from 1912-1918 and the Subsequent Catastrophe
    4. Intense Struggles during the Interwar Period
    5. The Initial Phase of the War and Bulgarian Neutrality (1939–1941)
    6. Bulgaria in the Orbit of the Third Reich (1941–1944)

PART ONE:

THE TIMES OF HIGH STALINISM

1. BULGARIA IN THE SHADOW OF STALIN

    1. Establishment of the Fatherland Front Government in Bulgaria
    2. The Moscow Truce and Bulgaria’s Participation in the Final Stage of World War Two
    3. Conflicts within the Fatherland Front and the Formation of a Legal Opposition to the Regime
    4. The Intensification of Social-Political Struggles within the Country
    5. Signing the Peace Treaty with Bulgaria
    6. Convening a Grand National Assembly and the Liquidation of the Opposition

2. GEORGI DIMITROV AND “THE PEOPLE’S DEMOCRACY”

    1. Georgi Dimitrov and His Diary
    2. Dimitrov and Stalin
    3. On the Nature of “The People’s Democracy”

3. BULGARIA IN THE YEARS OF CLASSICAL STALINISM

    1. The Second Major Wave of Repression
    2. Vâlko Chervenkov – The New Charismatic Leader

4. BUILDING THE COMMUNIST ECONOMY IN BULGARIA

    1. The Post-War Economic Crisis and the Beginning of Deep Transformations within the Bulgarian Economy (1944–1947)
    2. The Sovietization of the Bulgarian Economy (1948–1953)
    3. Ideas for Bulgaria’s Economic Development as a Weapon in Power Struggles (1953–1956)

5. THE BULGARIAN VILLAGE UNDER COMMUNISM: COLLECTIVIZATION, SOCIAL CHANGE AND ADAPTATION

    1. At the Crossroads Between Private and Collective Agriculture
    2. Tools for Imposing the Soviet Kolkhoz Model
    3. The First Stage of Mass Collectivization
    4. The TKZS and Social Change in the Bulgarian Village
    5. The Villagers’ Resistance
    6. The Temporary Lull
    7. The Final Push Towards Mass Collectivization
    8. The Villagers’ Strategies for Adaptation

6. THE GORYANI – ARMED RESISTANCE AGAINST COMMUNIST REPRESSION

7. THE SOVIETIZATION OF BULGARIA – A BASIC RESOURCE FOR THE NEW COMMUNIST AUTHORITIES

    1. Objective Factors in the Sovietization of Bulgaria
    2. Subjective Factors in Sovietization
    3. Entanglement in the Totalitarian Web

8. STATE SECURITY WITHIN THE STRUCTURE OF THE COMMUNIST STATE – RULING THROUGH VIOLENCE

    1. Building State Security
    2. Political Repression
    3. Organizational Principles
    4. Intelligence Departments
    5. Domestic Security and Political Police

9. EDUCATION AND CULTURE WITHIN THE SYSTEM OF THE COMMUNIST STATE

    1. The New Government’s Educational Policy
    2. The Seizure and Centralization of Cultural Institutes and Independent Organizations of Intellectuals
    3. Censorship Institutions
    4. The Imposition of Socialist Realism in the Literature and Culture of Communist Bulgaria

10. COMMUNIST BULGARIA’S FOREIGN POLICY AND THE COLD WAR

    1. The Idea of a South Slavic Federation and Its Failure
    2. The Signing of the Peace Treaty and the Official Establishment of Bulgaria’s Status as a Soviet Satellite
    3. Bulgaria and International Relations within the Borders of the Eastern
    4. Bulgaria’s Relations with the United States and Other Western Countries during the Cold War
    5. Bulgaria and Bloc-Internal Crises
    6. Bulgaria and the Third World

PART TWO:

FROM SHEEPISH DESTALINIZATION TOWARDS THE CONSOLIDATION OF THE REGIME AND ITS PENETRATION INTO EVERYDAY LIFE

11. AFTER STALIN – POLITICAL PROCESSES WITHIN "REAL SOCIALISM"

    1. A Timid Thaw in Bulgarian Society
    2. The 1956 April Plenum of the CC of the BKP and Its Consequences
    3. Todor Zhivkov’s Seizure of Absolute Power
    4. Factional Struggles and Conspiracies within in the BKP during the 1960s and the early 1970s
    5. The Zhivkov Constitution of 1971 and the Leader’s New Cult of Personality
    6. Old Foreign Policy with a New Voice
    7. Bulgaria and the End of the Cold War

12. THE COURSE TOWARDS ACCELERATED ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND REFORM OF THE ECONOMIC MODEL

    1. In Search of New Economic Priorities
    2. Communist Bulgaria’s First Debt Crisis (1960–1964)
    3. The First Timid Attempts at Reforming the Economic Model (1963–1968)
    4. Substitutes for Reform (1968–1976)
    5. The Second Foreign Debt Crisis (1973–1978)
    6. "The New Economic Mechanism" (1979–1980)
    7. Economic or Political Restructuring – Zhivko with/versus Gorbachev

13. SOVIETIZATION IN THE SHADOW OF KHRUSHCHEV AND THE BREZHNEV DOCTRINE

14. IN SEARCH OF A COMMUNIST MODEL OF CONSUMER SOCIETY

    1. Reasons for Consensus instead of Violence
    2. The Paths to Constructing a Feigned Consensus
    3. Disintegration of the Feigned Consensus

15. PROCESSES WITHIN SOCIETY – THE DIVISION OF THE PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SPHERES

16. THE GHOSTS OF NATIONAL COMMUNISM AND PRESSURE ON MUSLIM COMMUNITIES

    1. Pressure and Survival during the 1960s and Early 1970s
    2. "The Revival Process" from the Mid-1970s through the 1980s

17. THE CHURCH ON THE PERIPHERY OF SOCIETY

    1. Christian Churches – A Struggle To Survive under Stalinism
    2. Elevation of the International Status of the Bulgarian Orthodox Church
    3. The Isolation of the Bulgarian Orthodox Church under Patriarch Kiril (1953-1971) and Patriarch Maxim
    4. The Bulgarian Orthodox Church’s International and Ecumenical Activities

18. PROCESSES WITHIN THE CULTURE OF "REAL SOCIALISM"

    1. Lyudmila Zhivkova and the New Cultural Policy: Unified Long-Term Cultural Programs
    2. The Historicization of Culture and the Transformation of Classical Ideological Postulates
    3. Crisis and Mimicry in Socialist Realism: Discursive Tension
    4. The Alternatives: Vacillation and Acknowledgement
    5. From the Invisible Turn during the 1970s and 80s to the Slow Advance of Alternatives

PART THREE

THE COLLAPSE AND PEACEFUL WITHDRAWAL OF COMMUNISM IN BULGARIA

19. THE DEEPENING CRISES AND THE PARALYZATION OF THE REGIME

    1. Reform-Fever to the Bitter End: From the July Conception to Decree 56
    2. The Foreign Debt Trap
    3. The Collapse of the "Revival Process" and the Intensification of Bulgaria’s International Isolation
    4. Perestroika-Related Processes in Late Communist Culture
    5. Socialist Realism as an Abandoned Fortress

20. THE LIMITS OF THE COMMUNIST MODEL AND AN EVALUATION OF THE REGIME’S SOCIAL POLICY

    1. A Social Policy "In Service of the People"
    2. Sources and Use of Nostalgia
    3. Justice and Solidarity in the Communist "Etat-providence"
    4. Social Benefits and the Social Corruption of the Masses
    5. Social Rights and Their Internal Erosion – An Element of Communist Bulgaria’s Final Crisis

21. GORBACHEV’S PERESTROIKA AND ITS INFLUENCE ON PROCESSES IN BULGARIA

    1. Gorbachev’s Perestroika and Zhivkov’s Perestruvka
    2. The "Grand Era of the Intelligentsia" and the Late Bulgarian Dissident Movement
    3. The November 10 Coup and Todor Zhivkov’s Removal from Power

22. THE BEGINNING OF THE GREAT TRANSITION

HISTORY OF THE PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF BULGARIA: TIMELINE

LEADING HISTORICAL FIGURES FROM THE PERIOD

BIBLIOGRAPHY

INDEX

About the Authors

Ivaylo Znepolski (Editor) is Emeritus Professor at the University of Sofia and Director of the Institute for Studies of the Recent Past, Sofia, Bulgaria.

Mihail Gruev is Head of the Bulgarian State Archive.

Momtchil Metodiev is Research Fellow at the Institute for Studies of the Recent Past, Sofia, Bulgaria.

Martin Ivanov is Professor at the Department of Sociology, University of Sofia.

Daniel Vatchkov is Head of the Institute of Historical Studies at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences.

Ivan Elenkov is Full Professor at the University of Sofia, teaching the History of Bulgarian Modern Culture.

Plamen Doynov is Associate Professor at the New Bulgarian University.

About the Series

Routledge Histories of Central and Eastern Europe

The nations of Central and Eastern Europe experienced a time of momentous change in the period following the Second World War. The vast majority were subject to Communism and central planning while events such as the Hungarian uprising and Prague Spring stood out as key watershed moments against a distinct social, cultural and political backcloth. With the fall of the Berlin Wall, German reunification and the break-up of the Soviet Union, changes from the 1990s onwards have also been momentous with countries adjusting to various capitalist realities. The volumes in this series will help shine a light on the experiences of this key geopolitical zone with many lessons to be learned for the future.

Learn more…

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
HIS010010
HISTORY / Europe / Eastern
HIS032000
HISTORY / Europe / Russia & the Former Soviet Union
POL060000
POLITICAL SCIENCE / World / Russian & Former Soviet Union